THE SECOND OPIUM WAR AND THE AMERICAN BEACHHEAD
(Source for the following is *Dope, Inc.* by the Editors of
Executive Intelligence Review. I neither necessarily agree nor
disagree with all or portions of the following.)
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1816 -- John Jacob Astor imports, among other products, opium
into China. Astor is a "pioneer" in the introduction of opium
into China. Astor invests his opium profits in Manhattan real
One strange fact: East India Company has a de facto monopoly
on the dope trade into China. Yet Astor is allowed to
participate. Is this a payoff by the Brits in return for Astor
serving as an intelligence operative? Aaron Burr, British
intelligence agent, was provided funds with which to escape the
U.S. by Astor, after Burr had killed Alexander Hamilton in a
Besides Astor and associates in New York City, the East India
Company develops similar networks in Philadelphia and Boston.
British bank Baring Brothers becomes linked by business and
intermarriage with prominent families in Philadelphia.
1832 -- The East India Company monopoly on the dope trade into
China expires. Now too, the Astor family is no longer a major
player. The Forbes family of Boston achieves notoriety in the
dope traffic into China.
1833 -- The British discontinue the slave trade because it has
become unprofitable. It is picked up by the Perkins and Forbes
families, among others, operating through Russell and Company.
Other families involved: Cabot, Lodge, Bacon, Russell, Coolidge.
1846 -- 117,000 "coolies" -- indentured servants -- are brought
into the U.S. With them comes 230,000 pounds of gum opium and
over 53,000 pounds of prepared (smoking) opium.
Circa 1850s -- British firms bring cotton from the southern U.S.
to Liverpool. This cotton then goes to the mills in the north of
England where, under Dickensian conditions, it is spun into cloth
by the workers -- many of them children. Finished goods are
exported to India, incidentally destroying India's existing cloth
industry. India must pay for its imported cloth with its Bengali
opium exports to China.
"Without the 'final demand' of Chinese opium sales, the
entire world structure of British trade would have collapsed."
(From the Feb. 1996 Conspiracy Nation Newsletter)
While all this was going on, the "secret ideology of
international finance... aimed at eventual rule over all
the world by the British Government" was seething at a
perceived affront to its plans as promulgated in the Monroe
Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine, "America for the
Americans," was in conflict with British plans to maintain
and advance the worldwide British empire. But at the time
of its inception during the 1820s, the British were then
preoccupied with problems in the Mohammedan world. By
1856, however, Great Britain turned its attention to
America. A close business connection existed between
cotton manufacturing England and the cotton aristocracy of
the American South. The southern states "were swarming
with British agents." These agents acted upon the business
connection between the South and Great Britain to help
foment rebellion. The British also provided indirect aid
to the Confederacy which "brought the fortunes of the North
to a very low ebb; and every indication at this stage was
that Britain was preparing to enter the war." "In
December, 1861, a large British, French and Spanish
expeditionary force was landed at Vera Cruz [Mexico] in
defiance of the Monroe Doctrine." Things looked bad for
the Union. However the North itself received timely
assistance from Russia and that, combined with other
factors, resulted in eventual Union victory.
(The question arises as to whether John Wilkes Booth, a
known agent of the Confederacy, really was a "lone nut"
when he assassinated the victorious Abraham Lincoln. This
editor does not believe that it was Booth who perished on
or about April 26, 1865 at the Garret barn in Virginia.
Support for this opinion can be found in, among several
works, Escape and Suicide of John Wilkes Booth by Finis L.
Bates. Memphis: Pilcher Printing Co., 1907)
Pre- American Civil War -- British pharmaceutical houses begin
commercial production of morphine. They misleadingly claim it is
"nonaddictive" and even say it will cure opium addiction.
June 1859 -- Lord Palmerston returns to the post of Prime
Minister of Great Britain. He continues his push for an "open
1858-1860 -- The British Crown precipitates the Second Opium War,
against China. One consequence is the founding of the Hongkong
and Shanghai Corporation.
Britain establishes its method of control over the opium
(1) Sponsorship of mass-scale opium addiction of targeted
colonial and neo-colonial populations as the way to sap the
vitality of the nation;
(2) Willingness of Her Majesty's government to deploy
Britain's national military forces to protect the opium trade;
(3) Use of the gigantic profits reaped from the trade to fund
allied terrorist and organized criminal infrastructure within the
targeted nation to carry out the trade and to act as a fifth
column of British interests.
1860 -- Opium exports from India to China: 58,681 chests.
1862 -- Abraham Lincoln outlaws the coolie trade. But black
marketeering in coolie labor nonetheless continues, in fact it
escalates, through the end of the century. With the coolies
comes opium; they are a ready market for the drug.
1866 -- William Hathaway Forbes joins the board of directors of
the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank -- a.k.a. the HongShang Bank.
1880 -- Opium exports from India to China: 105,508 chests.
1905 -- The Anglo-Chinese agreement calls for the Chinese to
reduce domestic opium production and for the British to reduce
their exports to China from British India. But the British evade
their end of the deal by merely sending their opium to Hong Kong.
The agreement is also evaded by British-sponsored underground
crime networks in China that redouble their smuggling efforts.
1911 -- An international conference at The Hague agrees to
regulate the narcotics trade.
Also in 1911, Britain issues a huge loan to Persia. The
collateral? Persia's opium revenues.
1921 -- In India, Gandhi and followers begin agitating against
opium. They are arrested on charges of "undermining the revenue."
1924 -- In the U.S., heroin is outlawed as a prescription drug.
(Heroin, by the way, had been originally touted as a cure for