Introduction to the Runes

By Valkyrie

Okay, here goes.  Rule number one.  Don't take anything I, or anyone
else, say(s) as being anything except personal opinon based on study.
Use it as a beginning point to discover the connections you have.

Another warning involved in runework.  Don't use or cut runes for
magical spells until you are *completely* sure of what it is that you're
doing and what they mean.

There are a number of Futharks.  The word is spelled in a couple of
different ways, but that one will do.  An elder futhark has been
identified which consists of twenty-four runes.  But, just as our
alphabet consists of 26 letters, there are *lots* of extra letters that
we throw in when necessary. Combined letters, variants, symbols that
allow us to write words that can't be expressed with the 26 letters for
one reason or another.

The group which consists of the futhark and the ones outside it are the
"rune-hoard".  The twenty-four have been drawn and defined.  That
doesn't mean that you have to be limited to those, but it is a basic
place to start, and one that everyone that uses runes is aware of, even
if they don't use the 24-rune Futhark.  Some futharks have fewer then
24, notably the "Younger Futhark" which consists of 16 runes.

Even if they do use the 24-rune Elder Futhark, some change the position
of Othala and Dagaz.  The different runes have slight variations in the
names. So I'm going to use Edred Thorsson's books, _Futhark: A Handbook
of Rune Magic_, Runelore: A Handbook of Esoteric Runology_, and _At the
Well of Wyrd_.  I would recommend all three as a good place to start
since the majority of Rune Users are familiar with the work...even if
they disagree with some aspects or with Thorsson on other issues.
_Futhark_ is the first and should be read before the other two.

The Elder Futhark is divided into three groups or three "aettirs".
Runic codes develop from using the rune number within its recognize
group, but that can come later.  It is important to remember that each
rune has an assigned place in the Elder Futark and that there are
reasons for learning the order.  There are some difference is shape
also.  But we can go into that on individual rune discussions. This is a
basic Furthark, although a little odd looking because of the way it has
to be done with slashes and lines.  They are all straight lines and come
to points.

        | / / |\    |   |     |\             \     /     |\
        |/ /  |  \  |   |\    |  \     /      \   /      |  \
        |/    |   | |\  |\ \  |  /    /         \/       |____\
        |     |   | |/  |  \  |/\     \        /  \      |
        |     |   | |   |     |   \     \     /     \    |
        |     |   | |   |     |              /        \  |

        |   |  |  |      /         |\    |\   /  \  |  /    /
        |   |  | \|    /           | \   |  \/     \|/     /
        |\  |  |  \     \   \      |     |          |      \
        |  \|  |  |\      \   \    |     |          |        \
        |   |  |  |          /   \ |     | /\       |       /
        |   |  |  |        /      \|     |/   \     |      /

        /|\  |\   |\   /| |\   /|   |\            |      |    /\
         |   | \  |  \/ | |  \  |   |  \    /\    |\    /|  /    \
         |   |/   |     | |/   \|   |     /    \  |  \/  |   \  /
         |   |\   |     | |     |   |     \    /  |  / \ |    \
         |   | \  |     | |     |   |       \/    |/    \|   /  \
         |   |/   |     | |     |   |             |      |  /     \

They number from left to right, top to bottom.
Thorsson gives the names and sounds in his books generally as:

Number    Name      Sound/letter

 1.        fehu         f
 2.        uruz         u
 3.        thurisaz     th
 4.        ansuz        a
 5.        raidho       r
 6.        kenaz        k
 7.        gebo         g
 8.        wunjo        w
 9.        hagalaz      h
10.        nauthiz      n
11.        isa          i
12.        jera         j/y
13.        ihwaz        i
14.        perthro      p
15.        elhaz        -z/-R
16.        sowilo       s
17.        tiwaz        t
18.        berkano      b
19.        ehwaz        e
20.        mannaz       m
21.        laguz        l
22.        ingwaz       'ng'
23.        dagaz        d
24.        othila       o

I generally think of them in the more anglicized term, but all of the
names are basically recognizable.  If I slip and use one of the other
names, ask if it isn't apparent which one it belongs to.  I will try to
stay with these, although I think adding alternative names and shapes
would be a good idea, as we go along.

   |    /
   |  /       Fehu  (GMC) property, cattle
   |/   /     Faihu (GO)  cattle, property or wealth
   |  /       Foeh  (OE)  cattle, or money
   |/         Fe    (ON)  livestock or money
   |          Sound: f

The basic meaning is wealth in the sense of money or currency.  Cattle
were a measuring of one's wealth.  Fee, a payment, comes from this term.
as a distribution of wealth as does fellowship and friendship, wealth of
another kind.

Gold, being one of Freya's attributes is also associated with Fehu.

Sharing or "loaning" cattle to others who then returned the cattle with
"interest" in the form or a larger herd or other property was a way of
increasing wealth.  Those who herded the cattle and kept them safe were
thought to have magical powers to call and to protect the cattle.

This is money or wealth that comes form one's energy and use of
resources.  Since cattle breed, and from cattle come more cattle, it
could also represent the concept that 'money makes money.'  Freya (or
Frey) is also represented by this first rune in the aett of Freya (or
Frey).  Many first letters of alphabets have similar meanings.

Cattle were considered suitable for sacrifice, and as offerings at
festivals.  Audhumla, the primal cow is also represented by Feoh, a
creative force, it can be a dynamic shaping force.

In divination it can represent any of those forces.

    |  \            GMC     Uraz   the auroch
    |    \          GO      Urus   the auroch
    |      \        OE      Ur     ox, bison
    |       |       ON      Ur     drizzle, rain
    |       |
    |       |       Primal force, strength.
    |       |
    |       |       Sound:  u, v  oo
    |       |

The auroch was a wild ox, very large and very fierce, in description it
sounds very much like the Longhorn. Uruz is associated with the primal
creative force, primitive, earliest or original.  The German _ursprache_
used linguistically to refer to "original sounds."  In the Oxford
English Dictionary Ur also refers to the unarticulated sound which would
also be apt.  It is also an archaic form of "our."

Audhumla, the great cow which was fromed form the dripping rime
produced from fire and ice.  She was the "shaping force" that licked the
ice into the primal giant, and was the source of sustenance for the
cosmic giant Ymir.

It is a spiritual or creative force which pervades the universe,
something like "mana" of the Polynesian traditions, a vital essence.
The shape is likened to the horns of the primal cow or the auroch.

The runemaster or magician learns to control or direct it with the
knowledge that it can be dangerous, and though controlable, it is
undomesticable.  It represents force and freedom, or a force always
straining to be free if contained.  It is protective, as the auroch,
when used in defense of one's territory or children.

I associate it with the primal well, Urth.

In a runic reading it is a formative or protective force, unmanifested
but which can shape things to come.

     |         (Note- Thor's Rune)
     |         GMC   Thurisaz    The strong one, giant
     |\        GO    Thuith      The good one
     |  \      OE    Thorn       Thorn
     |    \    ON    Thurs       Giant
     |   /
     | /       Phonetic value:   _th_ as in "thorn"
     |         Asa-Thorr, the enemy of unfriendly forces.
     |         Thorn on a branch or Thor's hammer

Thurisaz is a force of defense and destruction.  "Bramble" or thorny
bushes were used to "fence" and protect boundaries.  One form of
Norse/Germanic execution was to throw criminals "into thorns".  Thor is
the god that protects sacred enclosures in much the same way that the
thorny hawthorne, blackthorn, or rose does. It is the thicket that
protected Sleeping Beauty's castle, the hedge that surrounded sacred

The thorn or the "spindle" was used to put "sleep" spells on beings,
even those on a cosmic level, and was equally a thorn of awakening.

No matter how beautiful the rose, one should be careful to watch for

The TH-rune is also associated with the thurs, (pl. thursar) or a
"giant" in the Old Norse.  There were several groups of these beings,
the "rime-thurses" or frost-giants, were wise (or witless..according
to various sources) and very old and who fought with the gods.  They are
primal forces, elemental in nature.

Thorn is a rune of testing and challenge, as well as protection and

                      (Note - Odin's Rune)
      |\              GMC   ansuz:  a god, ancestral god
      |  \            GO    ansus:  a runic god name
      |\   \          OE    os:     a god
      |  \            ON    ass:    a god, AEsir
      |    \                ansur   a mouth or the mouth of a river
      |               Phonetic value
      |               Windblown cloak, Odhinn, inspired speech


This is the rune of inspired speech and incantation as a creative
expression.  It is is linked with the ancestors, the magic of speech
which passes along knowledge with the breath of life, the passing of
knowledge through the spoken word, as differentiated from the written.

It is the rune of the poet, the saga, the syr, those of inspired speech.
It thus represents the ecstasy of inspiriation, the "swan song" chanting
out one's life as he or she prepares to meet death, the first cry of a
newborn baby.  It is whistling in the dark to banish fear.  It
encompasses the power of suggestion and sublimination.

It is the rune of the Wild Hunt, the movement of the gods/goddesses who
ride the howling winds, gathering lost souls and those newly released
from life back into the arms of the ancestors who await them with horns
of mead and pleasurable company.

Magically it increases the active powers and ond, inspires speech,
writing and poetry.  It can be used for the acquisition of inspiration,
and understanding.

Divination: Inspiration, enthusiasm, transformation, manipulation,
encouragement, compassion.

   |\          GMC    raidho   wagon
   |  \        GO     raidha   wagon, ride
   |   /       OE     radh     a riding, way
   | /         ON     reidh    riding, chariot
   |\                 rad/raed wheel/vehicle
   |  \
   |    \      Phonetic value   "r"
               A cosmic chariot, solar chariot, the wheel of stars
               A chariot of a god or goddess
               Estatic journey

Rhythm and movement are important to the concept of Raidho.  The sound
and dance of the estatic traveler who is carried on a circular journey.
The spiral journey of the sun on it's annual course from North to South
and back, as in the journey of Nerthus and Freyr's processions.  It is
the wheeling of stars around the cosmic axis. It can be thought of as
the chariot of Thor or Freya or any other cosmic "transportation."  As
the chariot is primal forces controled by conscious thought.

It can mean a possible or necessary journey in a reading, or
transportation.  It can mean a path or road, a way through a dilema.  It
can be a journey in consciousness, or a change in viewpoint.

       /       GMC  kenaz      torch
     /         GO   kusma      swelling
   /           OE   cen        torch
    \          ON   kaun       sore, boil
      \             kaunaz

The Gothic and Old Norse names are "secondary" according to Thorsson,
internal fire, inflammation, etc.   The terms were drawn from rune

It is the flame of transformation and regeneration.  It is associated
with kin and the sacred fires of sexual generation as well as the "kith
and kin" who gather around the hearth.  It is the flame of the forge,
the volcano and deep earth energies.  It is the controlled flame of
the artist and craftsman. It "breaks out" in unexpected ways, and holds
the power to create and/or destroy.  It is a primal force of creation,
in the myths it is fire and ice that produce the life force.

Ken in English and kennen in German are also terms meaning "to know."
They are also realted to OE Cen, "to know" or "to beget."  It is a fire
that is expressed in physical forms, and knowledge that although
intuitive is obtained through physical means and experience.

Magically it can bring about change, or effect a transformation, or
create.  It must be used carefully and in a controlled manner or it will
break out with destructive results.

In divination It can be a symbol of a sexual relationship or the product
of that relationship.  It can be a craft or a creative outlook.  It can
be the "barrier" that must be crossed to reach the inner secrets of the
shaman or hero on his journey through the labryinth darkness.

  \     /       GMC   gebo     gift, hospitality
    \ /         GO    giba     gift
    / \         OE    gyfu     gift, generousity
  /     \       ON    gipt     gift, wedding

                Phoenetic sound  "g" as in "gift."
                Exchanged gifts

Gebo represents hospitality, generousity and giving.  It is the joining
of giver and the one who receives.  As Thorsson points out in _Futhark:
A Handbook of Rune Magic_ it also has the meaning of a gift from the
Deities, particularly through union.  He relates the gift to the wisdom
received by the hero from the valkyrja.

It is a form of the solar wheel used traditionally on the saffron
colored sweet rolls which celebrate the changing of the seasons and the
gifts of grain and wealth from the gods which is given back in the form
of sweetened offerings.

It is a symbol of exchanged vows, marriage, ecstacy both physical and
mystic.  In the Norse traditions a gift required "a gift."

In divination it can represent sacrifice, giving and receiving,
exchange, marriage, partnership, increase because of consolidation.

Magically it would be used to promote harmony, bring about union,
receive divine instruction and gifts, increase magical power.

   |\             GMC  wunjo:    joy
   |  \            GO  winja:    pasture
   | /             OE   wynn:    pleasure, delight
   |               ON   vend:    (a rune name) joy, hope
   |                (Not in the younger row)
   |                Phonetic value:  w

Happiness and joy, glory.  The battle well-fought and won.  A wand.
Prosperity and good fellowship.  Peacefullness.

There is a term in Anglo-Saxon, _wuldortanas_, which is "glory twigs."
which many experts associate with the rune.

It is especially good in bind runes for ensuring victory.  ON _vend_or
Vindr, "Wind."  As such wynn, or vend, can be visualized as a wind-vane,
which shows "which direction the wind is blowing."  Wend, also means to
change the direction of something, to turn or to run with or against the
wind.  To change one situation into another, is another use of Wunjo
both magically and in divination.

 |   |
 |   |       GMC   Hagalaz      hail, egg (?)
 |\  |       GO    Hagl         hail
 |  \|       OE    Haegl        hail
 |   |       ON    Hagall       hail
 |   |

             Phoentic value:  "h"

The Anglo-Saxon rune poem refers to "hail" as being "grain" which falls
and turns into water after being tossed about by wind.  The layered
nature of a hailstone was recognized, as well as the potential for
destruction and the transformative qualities.  The concepts that
surround Hagalaz recognize that the destructive potential for hail out
of season is balanced by the potential for transformation that will
bring new fertility and growth.

It can be seen as representative of the cosmic "egg" that primal layered
egg of ice that was transformed in combination with fire.  Out of the
primal chaos which we think of as destructive comes a tangible force
that carries the potential for destruction and/or transformation.  The
transformation from destruction to fertility comes after "being tossed
by the winds," and in its own season.

Hagal reprents a dramatic event or trauma which comes from outside your
own immediate perceptions.  It represents a deep reshaping.  The rune is
deeply integrated into the mysteries of renewal through destruction, the
shaman who, like Odin, loses all in order to find his or her own
personal power.  It is the rune of winter, the grain of that season.

It is a crystaline form, one that is sharp and hard, yet clear and
possibly deadly.  It is one of the runes that can not be reversed nor
turned upside down.

I also read it as the rune of the bridge of the cosmos, the dangerous
path between worlds or experiences which can bring transformation or
destruction.  It was used in weather magic to ward off hail, even by

   |         (Note- Freya's Rune)
   |         GMC        Naudhiz       need
 \ |         GO         Nauths        necessity, need
   \         OE         Nyd           need, distress
   | \       ON         Naudh(r)      distress, need, constraint
   |         Phonetic value "n"

Naudhiz is another of the cosmic forces which is recognized as being a
"shaping" power which form the fates of the world and mankind.  It is
associated with the Nornir who are the "shapers."   In the rune poems it
represents the layerd concept of necessity providing the friction that
leads to transformation.  It represents the fire bow which engenders the

It is a rune of desire that produces the "need-fire" that drives a man
or woman to obtain that which he or she desires.  It is strongly
associated with love magic, and the driving desires that produce not
only the heat of sexual desire, but that of the desire to obtain or
achieve.  It is representative of the "spinning tree" or the windy tree
which was the source of all fertility.  The fire that combines with the
cosmic ice to achieve transforamtion.

If directed, and used with knowledge and wisdom, the need-fire becomes
creative and procreative.  If used unwisely it can become a force for
destruction burning to useless ashes.

Another of the runes that can not be reversed or turned upside down, it
is the worker's own will that is paramont in directing the force.  It
can be used to obtain a lover, to elimante hate and strive, develop will
and resistance.

  |    GMC   Isa         ice
  |    GO    Eis         ice
  |    OE    Is          ice
  |    ON    Iss         ice
  |    Phonetic value:  "i" as in "ee" (deed).

It is the primal ice, the icy stream (or glacier) that flows from
Niflheimr.  Is is an "elemental" rune.  It's form can be seen in nearly
all of the other runes.  It is associated with the rime-giants, the
hrimthursar and the wisdom of age.  Ice can be considered "static" as
many do, however, ice whether one is speaking of the rune or of actual
ice is a mysterious substance.  Isa can bring things to a halt, or place
something in suspension.    But the mysterious flow of the glacier is
also inherent in Isa, as it is realted to the primal stream.  Ice can
also be an expansive force, or one that crushes anything caught in its

It can provide a bridge over an expanse of dark water, or a dangerous
trap.  It is self-contained, and as such has the power of control and
constraint.  It should be used cautiously.

            \         GMC    Jera     the (good) year, harvest
              \       GO     Jer      year
     /        /       OE     Ger      year
   /        /         ON     Ar       year, (good) season
  \       /
    \                 Phonetic value:  'j' or 'y' as in 'yard'

It is the completion of a cycle, a season, or a year, representing the
dymanic rotation and changes of the cycles.  It is the fruitful
completion of a cycle, or the eternal contrast of opposites which
provide a whole. It is invoked for a good season (or harvest) and is
associated with fertility.  The Old Norse name ar is similar to 'ari'
which is the ON word for eagle, a solar symbol.

Magically it is used to invoke fertility and increase, or to bring
something to fruitation or completion.  It can bring peace and harmony.
It represents the nearly universal law of harvest.  What was sown will
be reaped.

     |  \    GMC  Eihwaz or iwaz       yew tree
     |       GO   Eihwas               yew tree
     |       OE   Eoh or eow           yew tree or mountain ash
     |       ON   ihwar                yew (in runic inscription only)
     |       Phonetic value is uncertain, "e/i"
  \  |

Eihwas represents the spinning World Tree, Yggdrasil.  It is the
axis about which all else revolves and spins out of.  It contains the
mystery of life and death.  It is a life giving force which has its
roots in the Underworld and death.  The yew is a powerful stave of
protection and banishing, not only because of its association with the
forces of life and death, but because of its association with the bow
made of yew wood.

Magically it can be a rune of wisdom when invoked in accessing the
mysteries of Yggdrasil.  It provides protection, and can help increase
personal power and defense.  It suggests the passage and communication
between different worlds and layers of reality.

   |\   /
   |  \/     GMC  perthro    device for casting lots
   |         GO   pairthra   dice cup
   |         OE   peordh     chess man (gaming piece)
   |  /\     ON      *       (Not in Norse futhark)
   |/   \
             Phonetic value: 'p'

Pertho is one of the mysteries of the runes.  As a container with the
lots of life, pertho represents the vagaries of chance which can not be
controlled.  However the pieces fall, the player must move boldly taking
what is cast and make up for in skill and wisdom any lack in the casting
itself.  It contains the mystery of the Nornic runes.  It is the rune of
the vitki, the one who seeks the mysteries of the cosmos through
the understanding of synchronicity.  It is the rune of the warrior who
constantly tests himself against chance and luck.

Magically it is luck in action, or gambling.  It is the mystery of luck
and life.

  \  |  /
    \|/      Germanic name:  Elhaz,  elk; or algiz,
     |       protection.

The Old English name, "elk-sedge" is a kenning for sword.  It represents
a two-edged blade.  It can be seen as the godhi or gydhja in the
attitude of addressing or invoking the gods.  Thorsson gives the
esoteric interpretation of the name as the protective forse, valkyrijur.
It can represent the splayed hand, the horns of the elk, a swan in
flight, a divergance or convergence of paths or forces.  It is a sign
used to promote victory and protection.

The Gothic word "alhs" or sanctuary.  It is used to strengthen magical
power and luck, as well as the life force.

  /          GMC  Sowilo     Sun
   \         GO   Saugil     Sun
     \       OE   Sigil      Sun
       \     ON   Sol        Sun
    /        Phonetic value "s"

The S-rune is that of the sun, part of the solar wheel.  Both the words
"sol" and "sunna" for the sun in Old Norse are feminine in nature as
were the cosmic forces represented by the sun.  It is the counterforce
to Isa, or the cosmic ice.  The S-rune is often connected to the
lightning bolt, or a flash of inspiration or ecstacy.

It strengthens the spiritual and psychic powers and abilities,
increasing spiritual might.  It provides "enlightenment" and success
through individual will.  The sun is refered to as the White Sow even
today in Scandinavian countries.  It is a rune of education and
understanding, as well as one that transforms ice to water, a
transformative force.  It can represent high achievements, honor and
obtained goals.

  /  |  \     GMC  Tiwaz    the god Tyr
     |        GO   Teiws    the god Tyr
     |        OE   Tir      the god Tyr (OE Tiw) glory
     |        ON   Tyr       the god Tyr
     |        Phonetic value: 't"

  Ideographically, it represents the vault of heaven intersepted by the
  world tree or axis.  A spear point, or arrow.  The pole star.

  The T-rune is primarily one of justice since Tyr is the Norse god who
  presided at the _thing_, (the Germanic general assembly).  Judgement
  was not always arrived at by discussion, judgement by arms was a
  common concept to the Norse/Germanic cultures.  It is associated with
  the idea that "justice will prevail."

  The Old English Rune Poem, says Tir is a star, it keeps its faith
  well.  It is always on its course over the mists of night.  It is
  represents the guiding principles which are steadfast and can be
  relied on to judge one's position.

  Magically it can be invoked where justice should be done.  In
  divination it will mean judgement, matters of law, decisions, or

  |\      (Note- Nerthus's Rune)
  |  \    GMC  Berkano,   birch, the birch goddess, birch twigs
  |  /    GO   bairkan    birch twig
  |<      OE   beorc      birch tree
  |  \    ON   bjarkan    runic birch goddess
  |  /                    (from ON bjork: birch)
          Phoenetic value: "b"

  The B-rune is related to the Great Mother, the Earth Goddes.  It is
  the mother of manifestation and of birth and rebirth.  The birch tree
  was often planted before a home to protect it in Scandinavian
  countries, and the custom continued to be observed in America where
  settlers built new homes.

  It is used in "birthing" new ideas, bringing them to life.

  Magically it is used in protective work, and in concealment spells,
  promoting safety and secrecy.  It can represent or bring about a
  rebirth in spirit, as well as the renewal of spring after a period of

   |\    /|
   |  \/  |     GMC  ehwas        horse, or ehwo: the "two" horses
   |      |     GO   aihwas       stallion
   |      |     OE   eh           war horse
   |      |     ON   ior          horse (not found in Younger Futhark)
   |      |
                Phonetic value "e"

   Ehwo is associated with "twin" gods or heroes, the divine twins, or
   two horses.  The Saxon conquers of Britain were Hengist and Horsa
   (stallion and horse).  It is the harmonious relationship between two
   forces.  The ehwas was connected closely to the concept of a man's
   fetch, the "horse" that carries one on the journey between worlds.
   It is the rune of Sleipnir.  With its close connection to the horse
   it is also a symbol of fertility, and partnerships.

   It facilitates "soul travel" or the shaman's journey.  As such it can
   be used to obtained hidden knowledge or knowledge from a distance.

   It can represent a journey in consciousness, a swifter flight then
   that of Raidho, and one that is protected or guided.

   |\    /|
   |  \/  |     GMC  Mannaz      Human, mankind
   |  /\  |     GO   Manna       Man, Human
   |/    \|     OE   Mann        Man, Human
   |      |     ON   Madhr       A Human being
   |      |
   |      |     Phonetic value  "m"

   The Old English Rune Poem says: (Mann) is in his mirth dear to his
   kinsman; although each shall depart from the other.  It is a rune of
   the human existence, of which life and death are both part.  It is
   the rune of mortality.  It also represents interdependence and
   support, as well as duty and responsiblity.  No individual is
   independent of others, each is part of a larger pattern.

   The similarity to Dagaz should be noted, here, the cyclical
   pattern is "smaller" the microcosm of mortality compared to the
   larger cycles of the cosmos.

   In divination, Mannaz can represent either an individual (man or
   woman) or a group.  It can also represent the inner qualities that
   represent one's connections to other people.  Is is a rune of
   assistance and can indicate a need for assistance or a willingness to

   Magically it invokes assistance, and bonding with the community.  It
   is a rune of social order and can invoke cooperation.

   |\       (Note- Aegir's Rune)
   |  \     GMC  laguz    a body of water (or laukaz: leek)
   |        GO   lagus    water
   |        OE   lagu     sea, water
   |        ON   logr     sea, water (or laukr: leek)  law, (ON log)
   |        Phonetic value "l"

  The sea and other bodies of water, like the earth, were considered
  a source of wealth and fertility and an expression of the unconscious
  and undiscovered mysteries of life and death.  The Aegir, the gods and
  goddesses of the sea, both gave and took life and offered fertility
  and wealth.  They were the brewers and the Norse looked at the foaming
  vat of beer and related it to froth of the ocean.

  It represents ebb and flow, and dark currents.  Laguz can be the water
  in a well, bubbling up from secret depths, or dark and still
  reflecting the querent but revealing nothing beneath the surface.  It
  seeks its own level, taking the path of least resistance at times, at
  other times sinking into the earth to rise in a distant place.  The
  ship burials, and stone "boat" graves reveal the assocation of water
  with the journey of death, a rite of passage.

  Representing the Well of Wyrd, laguz holds all the secrets of the
  unconscious and the collective or universal knowledge.  It represents
  psychic abilities.  It is the ale which can be charged with runic

  Magically it can be invoked to develop second sight and psychic
  powers.  In divination it is the unknown, the primeval water of birth
  and creation as well as death and the abyss.

              (Note- Frey's Rune)
      /\      GMC  ingwaz           the god Ing
    /    \    GO   enguz or iggws   the god Ing, a man
    \    /    OE   Ing              the god or the hero, Ing
      \/      ON   Ing, or Yngvi    the god Ing (a title of Freyr)

              Phonetic value "ng" as in "long"

   Ing is associated with Nerthus as well as Ing.  The circuit of the
   wagon that was associated with their respective worship represented
   the "king's circuit", the walking of the bounds, or the circuit of
   the sacred wagon which insured fertility to the land.

   It is a rune of ritual embodiying action on behalf of the earth and
   mankind.  Just as the greening of the earth follows the northerly
   progression of the sun, and retreats in it's wake, the rune is one of
   movement as well as action and reaction.

   It is a rune of invocation and action, as well as responsiblity.  It
   is a rune of warmth and inner fire.  It can be used to stimulate the
   growth of slumbering abilities into full growth.

   In divination it represents a gradual change or an adherence to
   ritual or ceremonial responsiblities.

   |\         /|
   |  \     /  |   GMC  dagaz     day
   |    \ /    |   GO   dags      day
   |    / \    |   OE   daeg      day
   |  /     \  |   ON   dogr      day (not in Younger Futhark)
   |/         \|
                   Phonetic value "d" and voiced "th" as in "then"

   Dagaz refers to the a day, a period of darkness and light, since the
   Norse counted their days from evening to evening, with the mid-point
   being dawn and the rising of the sun.  It is the rune of awakening,
   and metaphorically, rebirth.

   It is a rune of paradox, the balancing of opposites and movement, not
   as contraditions and opposition, but as counterbalances and
   compliments.  It represents light, paradox, syncretization.  It is
   the rune of "clear vision" and "enlightenment."  It represents time
   and space, and the weaving movement of the loom of life.

   In divination it is the rune of polarization, of sunlight and good
   fortune.  It can be invoked to bring new invoke an awakening of the

   Often, Dagaz is found as the last rune of the futhark, which is the
   position that I prefer.  However, since I used Eldred Thorsson's
   arrangement and names as a basic place to start from, I have
   maintained the arrangement that he uses most often.

      /    \    GMC  othala      ancestral property
      \    /    GO   othal       property
        \/      OE   ethel       homeland, property
       /  \     ON   odhal       nature, inborn quality
     /     \                     (not in Younger Futhark)

    Othala is the rune of the sacred enclosure, the homeland, the
    village, the homestead.  It is the family group, its customs, lands
    and language as well as the duties and responsiblities that go along
    with maintaining family ties.

    It can be used to invoke a solid and peaceful family or group
    life, and to continual growth and prosperity.  It is the "inherited"
    wealth that comes from one's ancestors, the customs as well as
    property or physical attributes.  It represents the wise management
    of family assets or one's family or kin.


     Hail to whoever spoke them,   hail to whoever knows them!
                  Gain they who grasp them,
                  happy they who heed them!

                                      The Sayings of Har
                                      str 163

The Anglo-Saxon Futhark added nine extra runes and some alternate forms
of the runes that are found in the Elder Futhark.  Several of the runes
take on slightly different forms.

Os (Ansuz) takes on a slightly different form with the addition of
upward lines, while Aesc is the form that was Ansuz and Ar and Aes are
added to the end of the Futhark

   |\               Is Ansuz or "Os" in the Anglo-Saxon futhark
   |  \    /
   |\   \/   /             instead of:   |\
   |  \    /                             |  \
   |    \/                               |\
   |                                     |  \
   |                                     |
   |                                     |
   |                                     |

   |\                 Ac  phonetic value "a"   Oak Tree
   |  \    /
   |\   \/   /
   |  \    /
   |    \/

   |\                 Aesc   Phonetic value "a" as in "at"
   |  \
   |\   \             Ash tree, or primal human material
   |  \
   |    \

   |  \              Yr     Phonetic value "un" gold decoration
   |    \                   Primal human material
   |      \
   |      |
   |  |   |
   |  |   |

   \   |   /
     \ | /           Ior    Phonetic value "io"  serpent
  -----|-----               Midgard serpent
     / | \
   /   |   \

   .           .
  /\    .|.   / \    'Ear  Phonetic value "ao" or "eo"
     \ / | \/              "earth-grave"

  \   .|.   /         Cweorth  Phonetic value "ao" or "oe"
    \/ | \/                    "fire-twirl"

       |              Calc    Phonetic value "k"
       |                      chalk, cup, or crystal goblet
     / | \
   /   |   \

  |\        /|
  |  \    /  |        Stone   Phonetic value "st"
  |    \/    |                stone, or altar stone
  |          |
  |          |
  |    /\    |
  |  /    \  |
  |/        \|

   \         /        Gar     Phonetic value "g"
     \ / \ /                  Spear, Odhinn's spear
      /\ /\
      \/ \/
     / \ / \
   /         \