The Controllers by Martin Cannon
Substantial evidence exists linking members of this country's intelligence
community (including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Advanvced
Research Projects Agency, and the Office of Naval Intelligence) with the
esoteric technology of MIND CONTROL. For decades, "spy-chiatrists" working
behind the scenes -- on college campuses, in CIA-sponsored institutes, and
(most heinously) in prisons -- have experimented with the erasure of memory,
hypnotic resistance to torture, truth serums, post-hypnotic suggestion, rapid
induction of hypnosis, electronic stimulation of the brain, non-ionizing
radiation, microwave induction of intracerebral "voices," and a host of even
more disturbing technologies. Some of the projects exploring these areas were
ARTICHOKE, BLUEBIRD, PANDORA, MKDELTA, MKSEARCH and the infamous MKULTRA.
I have read nearly every available book on these projects, as well as the
relevant congressional testimony. I have also spent much time in university
libraries researching relevant articles, contacting other researchers (who have
graciously allowed me access to their files), and conducting interviews.
Moreover, I traveled to Washington, DC to review the files John Marks compiled
when he wrote THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE". These files
include some 20,000 pages of CIA and Defense Department documents, interviews,
scientific articles, letters, etc. The views presented here are the result of
extensive and ongoing research.
As a result of this research, I have come to the following conclusions:
1. Although misleading (and occasionally perjured) testimony before
Congress indicated that the CIA's "brainwashing" efforts met with little
success, striking advances were, in fact, made in this field. As CIA
veteran Miles Copeland once admitted to a reporter, "The congressional
subcommittee which went into this sort of thing got only the barest glimpse."
2. Clandestine research into thought manipulation has NOT stopped, despite
CIA protestations that it no longer sponsors such studies. Victor Marchetti,
14-year veteran of the CIA and author of the renown expose, THE CIA AND THE
CULT OF INTELLIGENCE, confirmed in a 1977 interview that the mind control
research continues, and that CIA claims to the contrary are a "cover story."
3. The Central Intelligence Agency was not the only government agency
involved in this research. Indeed, many branches of our government took
part in these studies -- including NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, as well
as all branches of the Defense Department.
II. The Technology
A BRIEF OVERVIEW
In the early days of World War II, George Estabrooks, of Colgate University,
wrote to the Department of War, describing in breathless terms the possible
uses of hypnosis in warfare. The Army was intrigued; Estabrooks had a
job. The true history of Estabrooks' wartime collaboration with the CID,
FBI and other agencies may never be told: After the war, he burned his
diary pages covering the years 1940-45, and thereafter avoided discussing his
continuing government work with anyone, even close members of the family.
Occasionally, he strongly intimated that his work involved the creation of
hypno-programmed couriers and hypnotically-induced split personalities, but
whether he succeeded in these areas remains a controversial point. Neverthe-
less, the eccentric and flamboyant Estabrooks remains a pivotal figure in the
early history of clandestine behavioral research.
Which is not to say that he worked alone. World War II was the first
conflict in which the human brain became a field of battle, where invading
forces were led by the most notable names in psychology and pharmacology. On
both sides, the war spurred furious efforts to create a "truth drug" for use
in interrogating prisoners. General William "Wild Bill" Donovan, director of
the OSS, tasked his crack team -- including Dr. Winifred Overhulser, Dr.
Edward Strecker, Harry J. Anslinger and George White -- to modify human
perception and behavior through chemical means; their "medicine cabinet"
included scopolamine, peyote, barbiturates, mescaline, and marijuana. (This
research had its amusing side: Donovan's "psychic warriors" conducted many
extensive and expensive trials before deciding that the best method of
administering tetrahydrocannibinol, the active ingredient in marijuana, was
via the cigarette. Any jazz musician could have told them as much.)
Simultaneously, the notorious NAZI doctors at Dachau experimented with
mescaline as a means of eliminating the victim's will to resist. Jews, slavs,
gypsies, and other "Untermenschen" in the camp were surreptitiously slipped the
drug; later, mescaline was combined with hypnosis. The results of these
tests were made available to the United States after the War. [cf. Operation
PAPERCLIP, which transferred thousands of German and Japanese intelligence
researchers directly into the U.S. intelligence community. "Our Germans are
BETTER than their Germans!" - DR. STRANGELOVE -jpg]
In 1947, the Navy conducted the first known post-war mind control program,
Project CHAPTER, which continued the drug experiments. Decades later,
journalists and investigators still haven't uncovered much information about
this project -- or, indeed, about any of the military's other excursions into
this field. We know that the Army eventually founded operations THIRD CHANCE
and DERBY HAT; other project names remain mysterious, though the existence of
these programs is unquestionable.
The newly-formed CIA plunged into this cesspool in 1950, with Project
BLUEBIRD, rechristened ARTICHOKE in 1951. To establish a "cover story" for
this research, the CIA funded a propaganda effort designed to convince the
world that the Communist Bloc had devised insidious new methods of re-shaping
the human will; the CIA's own efforts could therefore, if exposed, be explained
as an attempt to "catch up" with Soviet and Chinese work. The primary promoter
of this "line" was one Edward Hunter, a CIA contract employee operating under-
cover as a journalist, and, later, a prominent member of the John Birch
society. (Hunter was an OSS veteran of the China theatre -- the same spawning
grounds which produced Richard Helms, Howard Hunt, Mitch WerBell, Fred
Chrisman, Paul Helliwell and a host of other noteworthies who came to
dominate that strange land where the worlds of intelligence and right-wing
extremism meet.) Hunter offered "brainwashing" as the explanation for the
numerous confessions signed by American prisoners of war during the Korean War
and (generally) UN-recanted upon the prisoners' repatriation. These confes-
sions alleged that the United States used germ warfare in the Korean conflict,
a claim which the American public of the time found impossible to accept. Many
years later, however, investigative reporters discovered that Japan's germ
warfare specialists (who had wreaked incalculable terror on the conquered
Chinese during WWII) had been mustered into the American national security
apparat -- and that the knowledge gleaned from Japan's horrifying germ
warfare experiments probably WAS used in Korea, just as the "brainwashed"
soldiers had indicated. Thus, we now know that the entire brainwashing
scare of the 1950s constituted a CIA hoax perpetrated upon the American
public: CIA deputy director Richard Helms admitted as much when, in 1963,
he told the Warren Commission that Soviet mind control research consistently
lagged years behind American efforts.
When the CIA's mind control program was transferred from the Office of
Security to the Technical Services Staff (TSS) in 1953, the name changed
again -- to MKULTRA. Many consider this wide-ranging "octopus" project --
whose tentacles twined through the corridors of numerous universities and
around the necks of an army of scientists -- the most ominous operation in
CIA's catalogue of atrocity. Through MKULTRA, the Agency created an umbrella
program of a positively Joycean scope, designed to ferret out all possible
means of invading what George Orwell once called "the space between our ears"
(Later still, in 1962, mind control research was transferred to the Office
of Research and Development; project cryptonyms remain unrevealed.)
What was studied? Everything -- including hypnosis, conditioning, sensory
deprivation, drugs, religious cults, microwaves, psychosurgery, brain implants,
and even ESP. When MKULTRA "leaked" to the public during the great CIA
investigations of the 1970s, public attention focused most heavily on drug
experimentation and the work with ESP. Mystery still shrouds another area
of study, the area which seems to have most interested ORD: psychoelectronics.
... a device known as a "stimoceiver," invented in the late '50s-
early '60s by a neuroscientist named Jose Delgado. The stimoceiver is a
miniature depth electrode which can receive and transmit electronic signals
over FM radio waves. By stimulating a correctly-positioned stimoceiver, an
outside operator can wield a surprising degree of control over the subject's
The most famous example of the stimoceiver in action occurred in a Madrid
bull ring. Delgado "wired" the bull before stepping into the ring, entirely
unprotected. Furious for gore, the bull charged toward the doctor -- then
stopped, just before reaching him. The technician-turned-toreador had halted
the animal by simply pushing a button on a black box, held in the hand.
Delgado's PHYSICAL CONTROL OF THE MIND: TOWARD A PSYCHOCIVILISED SOCIETY
remains the sole, full-length, popularly-written work on intracerebral implants
and electronic stimulation of the brain (ESB). (The book's ominous title and
unconvincing philosophical rationales for mass mind control prompted an
unfavorable public reaction -- which may have deterred other researchers from
publishing on this theme for a general audience.) While subsequent work has
long since superceded the techniques described in this book, Delgado's
achievements were seminal. His animal and human experiments clearly demon-
strate that the experimenter can electronically induce emotions and behavior:
Under certain conditions, the extremes of temperament -- rage, lust, fatigue,
etc. -- can be elicited by an outside operator as easily as an organist might
call forth a C-major chord.
Delgado writes: "Radio stimulation of different points in the amygdala and
hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effects, including
pleasant sensations, elation, deep, thoughtful concentration, odd feelings,
super relaxation, colored visions, and other responses." The evocative
phrase "colored vision" clearly indicates remotely-induced hallucination; we
will detail later how these hallucinations may be "controlled" by an outside
Speaking in 1966 -- and reflecting research undertaken years previous --
Delgado asserted that his experiments "support the distasteful conclusion that
motion, emotion, and behavior can be directed by electrical forces and that
humans can be controlled like robots by push buttons." He even prophesied
a day when brain control could be turned over to non-human operators, by
establishing two-way radio communication between the implanted brain and a
Of one experimental subject, Delgado notes that "the patient expressed the
successive sensations of fainting, fright and floating around. These
'floating' feelings were repeatedly evoked on different days by stimulation
of the same point..."
In a fascinating series of experiments, Delgado attached the stimoceiver
to the tympanic membrane, thereby transforming the ear into a sort of micro-
phone. An assistant would whisper "How are you?" into the ear of a suitably
"fixed" cat, and Delgado could hear the words over a loudspeaker in the next
room. The application of this technology to the spy trade should be readily
apparent. According to Victor Marchetti, The Agency once attempted a highly-
sophisticated extension of this basic idea, in which radio implants were
attached to a cat's cochlea, to facilitate the pinpointing of specific
conversations, freed from extraneous surrounding noises. Such "advances"
exacerbate the already-imposing level of Twentieth-Century paranoia: Not only
can our phones be tapped and mail checked, but even TABBY may be spying on us!
Yet the ramifications of this technology may go even deeper than Marchetti
indicates. I presume that if a suitably-wired subject's inner ear can be made
into a microphone, it can also be made into a loudspeaker -- one possible
explanation for ... "voices" ... . ... Indeed, not many years after Delgado's experiments with the cat,
Ralph Schwitzgebel devised a "bug-in-the-ear" via which the therapist -- odd
term, under the circumstances -- can communicate with his subject.
Other researchers have made notable contributions to this field.
Robert G. Heath, of Tulane University, who has implanted as many as 125
electrodes in his subjects, achieved his greatest notoriety by attempting to
"cure" homosexuality through ESB. In his experiments, he discovered that he
could control his patients' memory ... ; he could also
induce sexual arousal, fear, pleasure, and hallucinations.
Heath and another researcher, James Olds, have independently illustrated
that areas of the brain in and near the hypothalamus have, when electronically
stimulated, what has been described as "rewarding" and "aversive" effects.
Both animals and men, when given the means to induce their own ESB of the
brain's pleasure centers, will stimulate themselves at a tremendous rate,
ignoring such basic drives as hunger and thirst. (Using fixed electrodes
of his own invention, John C. Lilly had accomplished similar effects in the
early 1950s.) ... B.F. Skinner-esque aversive therapy,
remotely appiled, was Heath's prescription for "healing" homosexuality.
Ralph Schwitzgebel and his brother Robert have produced a panoply of
devices for tracking individuals over long ranges; they may be considered
the creators of the "electronic house arrest" devices recently approved by
the courts. Schwitzgebel devices could be used for tracking all the
physical and neurological signs of a "patient" within a quarter of a mile,
thereby lifting the distance limitations which restricted Delgado.
In Ralph Schwitzgebel's initial work, application of this technology to
ESB seems to have been limited to cumbersome brain implants with protruding
wires. But the technology was soon miniaturized, and a scheme was proposed
whereby radio receivers would be mounted on utility poles throughout a
given city, thereby providing 24-hour-a-day monitoring capability. Like
Heath, Schwitzgebel was much exercised about homosexuality and the use of
intracranial devices to combat sexual deviation. But he has also spoken
ominously about applying his devices to "socially troublesome persons"...
which, of course, could mean anyone.
Bryan Robinson, of the Yerkes primate laboratory has conducted fascinating
simian research on the use of remote ESB in a social context. He could cause
mothers to ignore their offspring, despite the babies' cries. He could turn
submission into dominance, and vice-versa.
Perhaps the most disturbing wanderer into this mind-field is Joseph A.
Meyer, of the National Security Agency, the most formidable and secretive
component of America's national security complex. Meyer has proposed implant-
ing roughly half of all Americans arrested -- not necessarily convicted --
of any crime; the numbers of "subscribers" (his euphemism) would run into the
tens of millions. "Subscribers" could be monitored continually by computer
wherever they went. Meyer, who has carefully worked out the economics of his
mass-implantation system, asserts that taxpayer liability should be reduced
by forcing subscribers to "rent" the implant from the State. Implants are
cheaper and more efficient than police, Meyer suggests, since the call to crime
is relentless for the poor "urban dweller" -- who, this spook-scientist admits
in a surprisingly candid aside, is fundamentally unnecessary to a post-
industrial economy. "Urban dweller" may be another of Meyer's euphemisms: He
uses New York's Harlem as his model community in working out the details of his
... a Florida doctor named Daniel Man ...
recently proposed a draconian solution to the overblown "missing children
problem," by suggesting a program wherein America's youngsters would be
implanted with tiny transmitters in order to track the children continuously.
Man brags that the operation can be done right in the office -- and would take
less than 20 minutes.
Conceivably, it might take a tad longer in the field.
A QUESTION OF TIMING
The history of brain implantation, as gleaned from the open literature, is
certainly disquieting. Yet this history has almost certainly been censored,
and the dates manipulated in a nigh-Orwellian fashion. When dealing with
research funded by the engines of national security, one can never know the
true origin date of any individual scientific advance. However, if we listen
carefully to the scientists who have pioneered this research, we may hear
whispers, faint but unmistakable, hinting that remotely-applied ESB originated
earlier than published studies would indicate.
In his autobiography THE SCIENTIST, John C. Lilly (who would later achieve
a cultish reknown for his work with dolphins, drugs and sensory deprivation)
records a conversation he had with the director of the National Institute
of Mental Health -- in 1953. The director asked Lilly to brief the CIA, FBI,
NSA and the various military intelligence services on his work using electrodes
to stimulate directly the pleasure and pain centers of the brain. Lilly
refused, noting, in his reply:
Dr. Antoine Remond, using our techniques in Paris, has
demonstrated that this method of stimulation of the brain
can be applied to the human without the help of the neuro-
surgeon; he is doing it in his office in Paris without neuro-
surgical supervision. This means that anybody with the proper
apparatus can carry this out on a person covertly, with no
external signs that electrodes have been used on that person.
I feel that if this technique got into the hands of a secret
agency, they would have total control over a human being and
be able to change his beliefs extremely quickly, leaving
little evidence of what they had done.
Lilly's assertion of the moral high ground here is interesting. Despite
his avowed phobia against secrecy, a careful reading of THE SCIENTIST reveals
that he continued to do work useful to this country's national security appar-
atus. His sensory deprivation experiments expanded upon the work of ARTICHOKE's
Maitland Baldwin, and even his dolphin research has -- perhaps inadvertently
proved useful in naval warfare. One should note that Lilly's work on
monkeys carried a "secret" classification, and that NIMH was a common CIA
But the most important aspect of Lilly's statement is its date. 1953?
How far back does radio-controlled ESB go? Alas, I have not yet seen Remond's
work -- if it is available in the open literature. In the documents made
available to Marks, the earliest reference to remotely-applied ESB is a 1959
financial document pertaining to MKULTRA subproject 94. The general subproject
descriptions sent to the CIA's financial department rarely contain much
information, and rarely change from year to year, leaving us little idea as to
when this subproject began.
Unfortunately, even the Freedom of Information Act couldn't pry loose much
information on electronic mind control techniques, though we know a great deal
of study was done in these areas. We have, for example, only four pages on
subproject 94 -- by comparison, a veritable flood of documents were released on
the use of drugs in mind control. (Whenever an author tells us that MKULTRA
met with little success, the reference is to drug testing.) On this point, I
must criticize John Marks: His book never mentions that roughly 20-25 percent
of the subprojects are "dark" -- i.e., little or no information was ever made
available, despite lawyers and FOIA requests. Marks seems to feel that the
only information worth having is the information he received. We know,
however, that research into psychoelectronics was extensive indeed, statements
of project goals dating from ARTICHOKE and BLUEBIRD days clearly identify this
area as a high priority. Marks' anonymous informant, jocularly named "Deep
Trance," even told a previous interviewer that, beginning in 1963, CIA and the
military's mind control efforts strongly emphasized electronics. I
therefore assume -- not rashly, I hope -- that the "dark" MKULTRA subprojects
concerned matters such as brain implants, microwaves, ESB, and related
I make an issue of the timing and secrecy involved in this research to
underscore three points: 1. We can never know with certainty the true origin
dates of the various brainwashing methods -- often, we discover that techniques
which seem impossibly futuristic actually originated in the 19th century.
(Pioneering ESB research was conducted in 1898, by J.R. Ewald,
professor of physiology at Straussbourg.) 2. The open literature almost
certainly gives a bowdlerized view of the actual research. 3. Lavishly-funded
clandestine researchers -- unrestrained by peer review or the need for strict
controls -- can achieve far more rapid progress than scientists "on the
We have amply demonstrated, then, that as far back as the 1960s -- and
possibly earlier still -- scientists have had the capability to create implants ... . Indeed, we have no notion just how advanced this technology has become,
since the popular press stopped reporting on brain implantation in the 1970s.
The research has no doubt continued, albeit in a less public fashion.
In fact, scientists such as Delgado have cast their eye far beyond the
implants; ESB effects can now be elicited with microwaves and other forms
of electromagnetic radiation, used with and without electrodes.
One thing we know with certainty:
Since the earliest days of project BLUEBIRD, the CIA's spy-chiatrists spent
enormous sums mastering Mesmer's art.
I cannot here give even a brief summary of hypnosis, nor even of the CIA's
studies in this area. (Fortunately, FOIA requests were rather more successful
in shaking loose information on this topic than in the area of psycho-
electronics.) Here, we will concentrate on a particularly intriguing
allegation -- one heard faintly, but persistently, for the past twenty years
by those who would investigate the shadow side of politics.
If this allegation proves true, hypnosis is NOT necessarily a person-to-
The ... mind control victim ... need not have physical
contact with a hypnotist for hypnotic suggestion to take effect; trance could
be induced, and suggestions made, via the intracerebral transmitters described
above. The concept sounds like something out of Huxley's or Orwell's most
masochistic fantasies. Yet remote hypnosis was first reported -- using
allegedly parapsychological means -- in the early 1930s, by L.L. Vasilev,
Professor of Physiology in the University of Leningrad. Later, other
scientists attempted to accomplish the same goal, using less mystic means.
Over the years, certain journalists have asserted that the CIA has mastered
a technology call RHIC-EDOM. RHIC means "Radio Hypnotic Intracerebral
Control." EDOM stands for "Electronic Dissolution of Memory." Together, these
techniques can -- allegedly -- remotely induce hypnotic trance, deliver
suggestions to the subject, and erase all memory for both the instruction
period and the act which the subject is asked to perform.
RHIC uses the stimoceiver, or a microminiaturized offspring of that tech-
nology to induce a hypnotic state. ... this technique is also
reputed to involve the use of INTRAMUSCULAR implants... . Apparently,
these implants are stimulated to induce a post-hypnotic suggestion.
EDOM is nothing more than missing time itself -- the erasure of memory from
consciousness through the blockage of synaptic transmission in certain areas of
the brain. By jamming the brain's synapses through a surfeit of acetocholine,
neural transmission along selected pathways can be effectively stilled.
According to the proponents of RHIC-EDOM, acetocholine production can be
affected by electromagnetic means. (Modern research in the psycho-physio-
logical effects of microwaves confirm this proposition.)
Does RHIC-EDOM exist? In our discussion of Delgado's work, I have already
cited a strange little book (published in 1969) titled WERE WE CONTROLLED?,
written by one Lincoln Lawrence, a former FBI agent turned journalist. (The
name is a pseudonym; I know his real identity.) This work deals at length with
RHIC-EDOM; a careful comparison of Lawrence's work with MKULTRA files declas-
sified ten years later indicates a strong possibility that the writer did
indeed have "inside" sources.
Here is how Lawrence describes RHIC in action:
It is the ultra-sophisticated application of post-hypnotic
suggestion TRIGGERED AT WILL [italics in original] by radio
transmission. It is a recurring hypnotic state, re-induced
automatically at intervals by the same radio control. An
individual is brought under hypnosis. This can be done either
with his knowledge -- or WITHOUT it by use of narco-hypnosis,
which can be brought into play under many guises. He is then
programmed to perform certain actions and maintain certain
attitudes upon radio signal.
Other authors have mentioned this technique -- specifically Walter Bowart
(in his book OPERATION MIND CONTROL) and journalist James Moore, who, in a
1975 issue of a periodical called MODERN PEOPLE, claimed to have secured a
350-page manual, prepared in 1963, on RHIC-EDOM. He received the manual
from CIA sources, although -- interestingly -- the technique is said to have
originated in the military.
Medically, these radio signals are directed to certain
parts of the brain. When a part of your brain receives a
tiny electrical impulse from outside sources, such as vision,
hearing, etc.,an emotion is produced -- anger at the sight of
a gang of boys beating an old woman, for example. The same
emotion of anger can be created by artificial radio signals
sent to your brain by a controller. You could instantly feel
the same white-hot anger without any apparent reason.
Lawrence's sources imparted an even more tantalizing -- and frightening --
...there is already in use a small EDOM generator-transmitter
which can be concealed on the body of a person. Contact with
this person -- a casual handshake or even just a touch --
transmits a tiny electronic charge plus an ultra-sonic signal
tone which for a short while will disturb the time orientation
of the person affected.
At present, I cannot claim conclusively that RHIC-EDOM is real. To my
knowledge, the only official questioning of a CIA representive concerning
these techniques occurred in 1977, during Senate hearings on CIA drug testing.
Senator Richard Schweicker had the following interchange with Dr. Sidney
Gottlieb, an important MKULTRA administrator:
SCHWEICKER: Some of the projects under MKULTRA involved
hypnosis, is that correct?
SCHWEICKER: Did any of these projects involve something
called radio hypnotic intracerebral control, which is a
combination, as I understand it, in layman's terms, of radio
transmissions and hypnosis.
GOTTLIEB: My answer is "No."
SCHWEICKER: None whatsoever?
GOTTLIEB: Well, I am trying to be responsive to the
terms you used. As I remember it, there was a current
interest, running interest, all the time in what effects
people's standing in the field of radio energy have, and
it could easily have been that somewhere in many projects,
someone was trying to see if you could hypnotize someone
easier if he was standing in a radio beam. That would
seem like a reasonable piece of research to do.
Schweicker went on to mention that he had heard testimony that radar (i.e.,
microwaves) had been used to wipe out memory in animals; Gottlieb responded,
"I can believe that, Senator."
Gottlieb's blandishments do not comfort much. For one thing, the good
doctor did not always provide thoroughly candid testimony. (During the same
hearing he averred that 99 percent on the CIA's research had been openly
published; if so, why are so many MKULTRA subprojects still "dark," and why
does the Agency still go to great lengths to protect the identities of its
scientists?) We should also recognize that the CIA's operations are
compartmentalized on a "need-to-know" basis; Gottlieb may not have had access
to the information requested by Schweicker. Note that the MKULTRA rubric
circumscribed Gottlieb's statement: RHIC-EDOM might have been the focus of
another program. (There were several others: MKNAOMI, MKACTION, MKSEARCH,
etc.) Also keep in mind the revelation by "Deep Trance" that the CIA
concentrated on psychoelectronics AFTER the termination of MKULTRA in 1963.
Most significantly: RHIC-EDOM is described by both Lawrence and Moore as a
product of MILITARY research; Gottlieb spoke only of matters pertaining to CIA.
He may thus have spoken truthfully -- at least in a strictly technical sense --
while still misleading the Congressional interlocutors.
Personally, I believe that the RHIC-EDOM story deserves a great deal of
further research. I find it significant that when Dr. Petter Lindstrom
examined X-rays of Robert Naesland, a Swedish victim of brain-implantation, the
doctor authoritatively cited WERE WE CONTROLLED? in his letter of response.
This is the same Dr. Lindstrom noted for his pioneering use of ultrasonics in
neurosurgery. Lincoln Lawrence's book has received a strong endorsement
Bowart's OPERATION MIND CONTROL contains a significant interview with an
intelligence agent knowledgeable in these areas. Granted, the reader has every
right to adopt a skeptical attitude toward information culled from anonymous
sources; still, one should note that this operative's statements confirm, in
pertinent part, Lawrence's thesis.
Most importantly: The open literature on brain-wave entrainment and the
behavioral effects of electromagnetic radiation substantiates much of the RHIC-
EDOM story -- as we shall see.
Robert Anton Wilson, an author with a devoted cult following, recently has
taken to promoting a new generation of "mind machines" designed to promote
creativity, stimulate learning, and alter consciousness -- i.e., provide a
drug-less high. Interestingly, these machines can also induce "Out-of-Body-
Experiences," in which the percipient mentally "travels" to another location
while his body remains at rest. This rapidly-developing technology has
spawned a technological equivalent to the drug culture; indeed, the aficionados
of the electronic buzz even have their own magazine, REALITY HACKERS. [Now
defunct. -jpg] I strongly suspect that we will hear much of these machines in
One such device is called the "hemi-synch." This headphone-like invention
produces slightly different frequences in each ear; the brain calculates the
difference between these frequencies, resulting in a rhythm known as the
"binaural beat." The brain "entrains" itself to this beat -- that is, the
subject's EEG slows down or speeds up to keep pace with its electronic
The brain has a "beat" of its own.
This rhythm was first discovered in 1924 by the German psychiatrist Hans
Berger, who recorded cerebral voltages as part of a telepathy study. He
noted two distinct frequencies: alpha (8-13 cycles per second), associated
with a relaxed, alert state, and beta (14-30 cycles per second), produced
during states of agitation and intense mental concentration. Later, other
rhythms were noted, which are particularly important for our present purposes:
theta (4-7 cycles per second), a hypnogogic state, and delta (.5 to 3.5 cycles
per second), generally found in sleeping subjects.
The hemi-synch -- and related mind-machines -- can produce alpha or theta
waves, on demand, according to the operator's wishes. A suitably-entrained
brain is much more responsive to suggestion, and is even likely to experience
There's more than one way to entrain a brain. Michael Hutchison's excellent
book MEGA BRAIN details the author's personal experiences with many such
devices -- the Alpha-stim, TENS, the Synchro-energizer, Tranquilite, etc. He
recounts dazzling, Dali-esque hallucinations, as a result of using this mind-
expanding technology; moreover, he offers a seductive argument that these
devices may represent a true breakthrough in consciousness-control, thereby
fulfilling the dashed dream of the hallucinogenic '60s.
I wish to avoid a knee-jerk Luddite response to these fascinating wonder-
boxes. At the same time, I recognize the dangers involved. What about the
possibility of an outside operator literally "changing our minds" by altering
our brainwaves without our knowledge or permission? If these machines can
induce a hypnotic state, what's to stop a skilled hypnotist from making use
of this state?
Granted, most of these devices require some physical interaction with the
subject. But a tool called the Bio-Pacer can, according to its manufacturer,
produce a number of mood altering frequencies -- WITHOUT attachment to the
subject. Indeed, the Bio-Pacer III (a high-powered version) can affect an
entire room. This device costs $275, according to the most recent price
sheet available. What sort of machine might $27,500 buy? Or $275,000?
What effects, what ranges might a million-dollar machine be capable of?
The military certainly has that sort of money.
And they're certainly interested in this sort of technology, according to
Michael Hutchison. His interview with an informant named Joseph Light elicited
some particularly provocative revelations. According to Light:
There are important elements in the scientific community,
powerful people, who are very much interested in these areas...
but they have to keep most of their work secret. Because as
soon as they start to publish some of these sensitive things,
they have problems in their lives. You see, they work on
research grants, and if you follow the research being done,
you find that as soon as these scientists publish something
about this, their research funds are cut off. There are areas
in bioelectric research where very simple techniques and
devices can have mind-boggling effects. Conceivably, if you
have a crazed person with a bit of a technical background, he
can do a lot of damage.
This last statement is particularly evocative. In 1984, a violent neo-NAZI
group called The Order (responsible for the murder of talk-show host Alan Berg)
established contact with two government scientists engaged in clandestine
research to project chemical imbalances and render targeted individuals docile
via certain frequencies of electronic waves. For $100,000 the scientists were
willing to deliver this information.
Thus, at least one group of crazed individuals almost got the goods.
WAVE YOUR BRAIN GOODBYE
Every Senator and Congressional representative has a "wavie" file. So do
many state representatives. Wavies have even pled their case to private
institutions such as the Christic Institute.
And who are the wavies?
They claim to be victims of clandestine bombardment with non-ionizing
radiation -- or microwaves. They report sudden changes in psychological
states, alteration of sleep patterns, intracerebral voices and other sounds,
and physiological effects. Most people never realize how many wavies there are
in this country. I've spoken to a number of wavies myself.
Are these troubled individuals seeking an exterior rationale for their
mental problems? Maybe. Indeed, I'm sure that such is the case in many
instances. But the fact is that the literature on the behavioral effects of
microwaves, extra-low-frequencies (ELF) and ultra-sonics is such that we
cannot blithely dismiss ALL such claims.
For decades, American science and industry tried to convince the population
that microwaves could have no adverse effects on human beings at sub-thermal
levels -- in other words, the attitude was, "If it can't burn you, it can't
hurt you." This approach became increasingly difficult to defend as reports
mounted of microwave-induced physiological effects. Technicians described
"hearing" certain radar installations; users of radar telescopes began
developing cataracts at an appallingly high rate. The Soviets had long
recognized the strange and sometimes subtle effects of these radio frequencies,
which is why their exposure standards have always been much stricter.
Soviet microwave bombardment of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow prompted the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Project PANDORA (later renamed),
whose ostensible goal was to determine whether these pulsations (reportedly
10 cycles per second, which puts them in the alpha range) could be used for the
purposes of mind control. I suspect that the "war on Tchaikowsky Street," as
I call it, was used, at least in part, as a cover story for DARPA mind
control research, and that the stories floated in the news (via, for example,
Jack Anderson's column) about Soviet remote brainwashing served the same
propaganda purposes as did the bleatings of Edward Hunter during the 1950s.
What can low-level microwaves do to the mind?
According to a DIA report released under the Freedom of Information Act,
microwaves can induce metabolic changes, alter brain functions, and disrupt
behavior patterns. PANDORA discovered that pulsed microwaves can create leaks
in the blood/brain barrier, induce heart seizures, and create behavioral
disorganization. In 1970, a RAND Corporation scientist reported that
microwaves could be used to promote insomnia, fatigue, irritability, memory
loss, and hallucinations.
Perhaps the most significant work in this area has been produced by Dr. W.
Ross Adey at the University of Southern California. He determined that
behavior and emotional states can be altered without electrodes -- simply by
placing the subject in an electromagnetic field. By directing a carrier
frequency to stimulate the brain and using amplitude modulation to "shape" the
wave into a mimicry of a desired EEG frequency, he was able to impose a 4.5
cps theta rhythm on his subjects -- a frequency which he previously measured
in the hippocampus during avoidance learning. Thus, he could externally
condition the mind towards an aversive reaction. (Adey has also done
extensive work on the use of electrodes in animals.) According to another
prominent microwave scientist, Allen Frey, other frequencies could -- in
animal studies -- induce docility. [cf USP #3,884,218 by Robert
Monroe, METHOD OF INDUCING AND MAINTAINING VARIOUS STAGES OF SLEEP IN THE
HUMAN BEING, granted 20 May 1975; ABSTRACT: A method of inducing sleep in the
human being wherein an audio signal is generated comprising a familiar pleasing
repetitive sound modulated by an EEG sleep pattern. -jpg]
The controversial researcher Andrijah Puharich asserts that "a weak (1 mW)
4 Hz magnetic sine wave will modify human brain waves in 6 to 10 seconds. The
psychological effects of a 4 Hz sine magnetic wave are negative -- causing
dizzyness, nausea, headache, and can lead to vomiting." Conversely, an 8 Hz
magnetic sine wave has beneficial effects. Though some writers question
Puharich's integrity (perhaps correctly, considering his involvement in the
confused tale of Uri Geller), his claims here seem in line with the findings of
As investigative journalist Anne Keeler writes:
Specific frequencies at low intensities can predictably
influence sensory processes...pleasantness-unpleasantness,
strain-relaxation, and excitement-quiescence can be created
with the fields. Negative feelings and avoidance are strong
biological phenomena and relate to survival. Feelings are
the true basis of much "decision-making" and often occur as
subthreshold [i.e. subliminal -jpg] impressions...Ideas
INCLUDING NAMES [my italics] [Cannon's italics -jpg] can be
synchronized with the feelings that the fields induce.
Adey and compatriots have compiled an entire library of frequencies and
pulsation rates which can affect the mind and nervous system. Some of these
effects can be extremely bizarre. For example, engineer Tom Jarski, in an
attempt to replicate the seminal work of F. Cazzamali, found that a particular
frequency caused a ringing sensation in the ears of his subjects -- who felt
strangely compelled to BITE the experimenters!. On the other hand, the
diet-conscious may be intrigued by the finding that rats exposed to ELF waves
failed to gain weight normally.
For our present purposes, the most significant electromagnetic research
findings concern microwave signals modulated by hypnoidal EEG frequencies.
Microwaves can act much like the "hemi-synch" device previously described --
that is, they can entrain the brain to theta rhythms. I need not emphasize
the implications of remotely synchronizing the brain to resonate at a frequency
conducive to sleep, or to hypnosis.
Trance may be remotely induced -- but can it be directed? Yes. Recall the
intracerebral voices mentioned earlier in our discussion of Delgado. The same
effect can be produced by "the wave." Frey demonstrated in the early 1960s
that microwaves could produce booming, hissing, buzzing, and other intra-
cerebral static (this phenomenon is now called "the Frey effect"); in 1973,
Dr. Joseph Sharp, of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, expanded on
Frey's work in an experiment where the subject -- in this case, Sharp himself--
"heard" and understood spoken words delivered via a pulsed-microwave analog of
the speaker's sound vibrations.
Dr. Robert Becker comments that "Such a device has obvious applications in
covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with 'voices' or deliver
undetectable instructions to a programmed assassin." In other words, we
now have, AT THE PUSH OF A BUTTON, the technology either to inflict an
electronic GASLIGHT -- or to create a true MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE. Indeed, the
former capability could effectively disguise the latter. Who will listen to
the victims, when electronically-induced hallucinations they recount exactly
parallel the classical signals of paranoid schizophrenia and/or temporal lobe
Perhaps the most ominous revelations, however, concern the mysterious work
of J.F. Schapitz, who in 1974 filed a plan to explore the interaction of
radio frequencies and hypnosis. He proposed the following:
In this investigation it will be shown that the spoken
word of the hypnotist may be conveyed by modulated electro-
magnetic energy DIRECTLY INTO THE SUBCONSCIOUS PARTS OF THE
HUMAN BRAIN [my italics] -- i.e., without employing any
technical devices for receiving or transcoding the messages
and without the person exposed to such influence having a
chance to control the information input consciously.
He outlined an experiment, innocent in its immediate effects yet chilling
in its implications, whereby subjects would be implanted with the subconscious
suggestion to leave the lab and buy a particular item; this action would be
triggered by a certain cue word or action. Schapitz felt certain that the
subjects would rationalize the behavior -- in other words, the subject would
seize upon any excuse, however thin, to chalk up his actions to the working of
free will. His instincts on this latter point coalesce perfectly with
findings of professional hypnotists.
Schapitz's work was funded by the Department of Defense. Despite FOIA
requests, the results have never been publicly revealed.
FINAL THOUGHTS ON "THE WAVE"
I must again offer a caveat about possible disparities between the
"official" record of electromagnetism's psychological effects and the hidden
history. Once more, we face a question of timing. How long ago did this
research REALLY begin?
In the eary years of this century, Nikola Tesla seems to have stumbled
upon certain of the behavioral effects of electromagnetic exposure.
Cazamalli, mentioned earlier, conducted his studies in the 1930s. In 1934,
E.L. Chaffe and R.U. Light published a paper on "A Method for the Remote
Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System." From the very
beginning of their work with microwaves, the Soviets explored the more subtle
physiological effects of electromagnetism -- and despite the bleatings of
certain right-wing alarmists that an "electromagnetic gap" separates us
from Soviet advances, East European literature in this area has been closely
monitored for decades by the West. ARTICHOKE/BLUEBIRD project outlines,
dating from the early 1950s, prominently mention the need to explore all
possible uses of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Another point worth mentioning concerns the combination of EMR and miniature
brain electrodes. The father of the stimoceiver, Dr. J.M.R. Delgado, has
recently conducted experiments in which monkeys are exposed to electromagnetic
fields, thereby eliciting a wide range of behavioral effects -- one monkey
might fly into a volcanic rage while, just a few feet away, his simian partner
begins to nod off. Fascinatingly, when monkeys with brain implants felt "the
wave," the effects were greatly intensified. Apparently, these tiny electrodes
can act as AMPLIFIERS of the electromagnetic effect.
might counter that any burst of microwave energy powerful enough to have truly
remote effects would probably also create a thermal reaction. That is, if a
clandestine operator propagated a "wave" ... from a low-flying helicopter, or from a truck travelling alongside the
subject's car ... the power necessary to do the job might be such that the
microwave would cook the target before it got a chance to launder his thoughts.
It's a fair criticism. But Delgado's work may give us our solution.
... the chip-in-the-brain would act an an intensifier of the signal.
Furthermore, recent reports indicate that a "waver" can achieve pinpoint
accuracy without the use of Delgado-style implants. In 1985, volunteers at the
Midwest Research Institute in Kansas City, Missouri, were exposed to microwave
beams as part of an experiment sponsored by the Department of Energy and the
New York State Department of Health. As THE ARIZONA REPUBLIC described the
experiment, "A matched control group sat IN THE SAME ROOM without being
bombarded by non-ionizing radiation." [My italics.] Apparently, one can focus
"the wave" quite narrowly ... .
So we now have some idea of the tools available to the "spy-chiatrists."
How have these tools been used?
This question necessarily involves some detective work. The Central
Intelligence Agency, under duress, provided some, though not enough, documen-
tation of its efforts to commandeer "the space between our ears." We know that
these efforts were extensive, long-term, and at least partially successful. We
know also that these experiments used human subjects. But who? When?
One paradox of this line of inquiry is that, for many readers, the victims
elicit sympathy only insofar as they remain anonymous. Intellectually, we
realize that MKULTRA and its allied projects must have affected hundreds,
probably thousands, of individuals. Yet we react with deep suspicion
whenever one of these individuals steps forward and identifies himself, or
whenever an independent investigator argues that mind control has directed some
newsworthy person's otherwise inexplicable actions. Where, the skeptic may
rightfully ask, is the documentation supporting such accusations? Most of the
MKULTRA "paper trail" was (allegedly) burnt at Richard Helms' order; what's
left has been censored, leaving black ink smudges wherever the names originally
appeared. Claimed mind control victims can, for the most part, only give us
testimony -- and how reliable can such testimony be, especially in light of the
fact that one purpose of MKULTRA was to induce insanity? Anyone asserting that
he was victimized by the program might well be seeking an extrinsic excuse for
his own psychopathology. If you say that you are a manufactured madman, you
were probably mad to begin with: Catch 22.
When John Marks wrote THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE" he received
numerous letters from people insisting that they had been drugged, "waved," or
otherwise abused by the CIA or the military. Most of these communications went
directly into his crank file. Perhaps many deserved that destination; I know
of at least one that did not.
Marks did, however, devote much attention to Val Orlikov, a former "patient"
of perhaps the most notorious figure in the annals of American medical crime:
Dr. Ewen Cameron, a CIA-funded scientist heading the Allan Memorial
Institute at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Cameron, a highly-respected
mental health researcher, experimented with a technique he called "psychic
driving," a brainwashing program which involved inflicting upon a subject an
endless tape loop blaring selected messages, 16-to-24 hours a day, combined
with massive electroshock and LSD. The project's "guinea pigs" were patients
who had come to Allan Memorial with relatively minor psychological complaints.
Cameron's experiments failed and his theories were discredited, which may
explain why the CIA and its apologists now feel relatively comfortable
discussing the Frankensteinian efforts at Allan Memorial, as opposed to more
successful work elsewhere.
Orlikov's testimony has received much respectful attention from those
writers who have examined MKULTRA, and correctly so. When I studied the files
at the National Security Archives, I was particularly keen to read her original
letters to John Marks, for these pages had led to the unmasking of an
especially heinous CIA project. The letters, interestingly enough, proved just
as vague, disjointed, and bizarre as similar correspondence which researchers
routinely dismiss. Orlikov can't be blamed for the hazy nature of her
recollections; a certain amount of fog is to be expected, given the nature of
the crime perpetrated against her. The important point is that her story,
ultimately, was found to be true. All of which leads me to wonder: Why did
HER claims prompt investigation when those of others prompt only dismissal?
Perhaps the answer lies in the fact that Orlikov's husband became a Canadian
Member of Parliament. Any victims of CIA experimentation who wish to be taken
seriously ought, perhaps, first make sure to marry well.
Of course, we can easily forgive previous writers and readers whose
researches into MKULTRA have been biased in favor of complacency. But we
can't let this natural prejudice cripple our present investigation. Let us
examine, then, a few of the "horror stories" from the mind control literature ... .
PALLE HARDRUP'S "GUARDIAN ANGEL"
As mentioned previously, I have not delved much into the subject of hypnosis
in this paper -- primarily because of space and time limitations, but also
because discussions of the possibilities of hypnosis PER SE tend to cloud the
issue of its use in conjunction with the above-mentioned electronic techniques.
Obviously, however, hypnosis is a major weapon in the mind controller's
armament; in a forthcoming full-length work, I intend to deal with this subject
at much greater length.
Needless to say, one of the primary objectives of MKULTRA and related
projects was to determine whether one could hypnotically induce someone to
commit an anti-social act. This possibility remains one of the most hotly-
debated issues in hypnosis, for conventional wisdom asserts that no individual
can be hypnotized to commit an action which violates his interior moral code.
Martin Orne, editor of the presitigious INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND
EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS agrees with this axiom, and he is in a position to
codify much of the established view on this topic. Orne, however, is a
veteran of MKULTRA, and furthermore seems to have lied -- at least in his
original communications -- to author John Marks about his witting involvement
in subproject 94. While I respect much of Orne's ground-breaking work,
his pronouncements do not hold, for this layman, an Olympian unassailability.
To be sure, many other hypnosis experts, untainted by Company connections,
also discount the possibility that anti-social actions can be induced. But a
number of highly-experienced professionals -- including Milton Kline, William
Kroger, George Estabrooks, John Watkins, and Herbert Spiegel -- have argued
that such actions can, at least to some degree, be elicited by an outside
Occasionally, claims of hypnotically-induced anti-social behavior find
their way into the courtroom; one such case, which led to the incarceration of
the hypnotist, was the Palle Hardrup affair. This incident occurred in
Denmark in 1951. Palle Hardrup robbed a bank, killing a guard in the
process, and later claimed that he had been instructed to do so by the
hypnotist Bjorn Nielsen. Nielsen eventually confessed to having engineered
the crime as a test of his hypnotic abilities.
The most significant aspect of this incident concerns the "pose" Nielsen
adopted to work his malicious designs. During the hypnosis sessions, Nielsen
hypnotically suggested that he was Hardrup's "guardian angel," represented
by the letter X. Hardrup testified that "There is another room next door
where Nielsen and I go and talk on our own. It is there that my guardian
spirit usually comes and talks to me. Nielsen says that X has a task for me."
One of these tasks was arranging for Hardrup's girlfriend to have sex with
the hypnotist. The other tasks, he mentioned, included robbery and murder.
Nielsen convinced his victim that "X" wanted the robbery funds to be used for
worthwhile political goals. The end, Hardrup was told, justified the means.
Thus we have one possible means of overcoming the proposition that hypnosis
cannot induce anti-social behavior. If a hypnotist lacks scruples, and has
access to a particularly susceptible subject, he can induce a MISPERCEIVED
REALITY. Actions which we would abhor in an everyday context become acceptable
in specialized circumstances: A citizen who could never commit murder on a
surburban street might, if drafted into an army, kill on the field of battle.
In hypnosis, the mind becomes that battlefield. In the words of Dr. John
We behave on the basis of our perceptions. If our perceptions
of a situation can be altered so as to cause us to misconstrue it,
or to develop a false belief, then our behavior in relation to it
will be drastically altered. It is precisely in the area of
changing perceptions that the hypnotic modality demonstrates its
most powerful effects. Hallucinations both under hypnosis, and
posthypnotic, can easily be induced in the suggestible subject.
He can be made to ignore painful stimuli, be apparently unable
to hear loud sounds, AND "SEE" INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE NOT PRESENT
[my italics]. Moreover, attitudes and beliefs can be initiated
in him which are quite abnormal and often contrary to those
which he previously held.
If traditional hypnosis, unaided, can achieve such changes in perception,
one can only imagine the possibilities inherent in the combination of hypnotic
techniques with the psychoelectronic research previously described.
Scientists such as Orne and Milton Erickson have taken issue with
Watkins' assertions. But the Hardrup case would appear to bear Watkins out.
If someone can be convinced that he, like Jeanne D'Arc, acts under the
influence of a supernatural higher power, then previously unthinkable
capabilitites may be evinced and "impossible" actions carried forth. Indeed,
when we consider the extreme personality changes -- and occasionally, the
heinous actions, elicited by leaders of certain cults, and occult groups,
we understand the desirability of installing a hypnotic "cover story" within a
supernatural matrix. People will do for God ... what they would not do otherwise.
The date of the Hardrup affair corresponds to the institution of BLUEBIRD/
ARTICHOKE; it doesn't require much imagination to see how this case could have
served as a model to the scientists researching those and subsequent projects.
According to declassified documents in the Marks files, a major difficulty
faced by the MKULTRA researchers concerned the "disposal problem." What to do
with the victims of CIA-sponsored electroshock, hypnosis, and drug experiment-
ation? The Company resorted to distressing, but characteristic, tactics: They
disposed of their human guinea pigs by incarcerating them in insane asylums, by
performing icepick lobotomies, and by ordering "executive actions."
A more sophisticated solution had to be found. One of the goals of the
CIA's mind control efforts was the erasure of memory via hypnosis (and drugs,
electronics, lobotomies, etc.); not only would this hide what occurred during
the experimental indoctrination/programming sessions, it would prove useful in
the field. "Amnesia was a big goal," confirms Victor Marchetti, who points out
its usefulness in dealing with contract agents: "After you've done it, the
agent doesn't even know what he's done...you send him in, he does the job.
When he comes out, you clean his head out."
The big problem: Despite hypnotically-induced amnesia, there would be memory
leaks -- snippets of the repressed material would arise spontaneously, in
dreams, as flashbacks, etc. A proposed solution: Give the subject a "screen
memory," a false story; thus, even if he starts to recall the material, he will
recall it incorrectly.
Even the conservative Dr. Orne notes that:
A S [subject] who is able to develop good posthypnotic amnesia
will also respond to suggestions to remember events which did not
actually occur. On awakening, he will fail to recall the real
events of the trance and will instead recall the suggested events.
If anything, this phenomenon is easier to produce than total
amnesia, perhaps because it eliminates the subjective feeling of
an empty space in memory.
Not only would the screen memories fill in the uncomfortable blanks in the
subjects' recollection, they would protect against revelation. One fear of
the MKULTRA scientists was that a hypno-programmed individual used as, say, a
courier, could be un-programmed by another hypnotist, perhaps working for the
enemy. Thus, the MKULTRA scientists decided to instill multiple personalities
-- multiple cover stories, if you will -- to confuse any "unauthorized"
One case using this technique centered on an assassin named Luis Castillo,
who, after his capture in the Philippines, was extensively de-briefed and
studied by experts in the employ of the National Bureau of Investigation, that
country's equivalent to our FBI. Castillo was discovered to have had at least
FOUR separate personalities hypnotically instilled; each personality could be
triggered by a specific cue. In one state, he claimed to be Sgt. Manuel Angel
Ramirez, of the Strategic Air Tactical Command in South Vietnam; supposedly,
"Ramirez" was the illegitimate son of a certain pipe-smoking, highly-placed CIA
official whose initials were A.D. Another personality claimed to be one
of John F. Kennedy's assassins.
The main hypnotist involved with this case labelled these hypnotic alter-
egos "Zombie states." The report on the case stated that "The Zombie pheno-
menon referred to here is a somnambulistic behavior displayed by the subject
in a conditioned response to a series of words, phrases, and statements,
apparently unknown to the subject during his normal waking state."
Upon Castillo's repatriation to the United States, the FBI claimed that he
had fabricated the story. In his book OPERATION MIND CONTROL, Walter Bowart
makes a convincing case against the FBI's claims. Certainly, many aspects of
the Castillo affair argue for his sincerity -- including his hypnotically-
induced insensitivity to pain, his maintenance of the story (or stories)
even when severly inebriated, and his apparently programmed suicide attempts.
If Castillo told the truth, as I believe he did, then he manifested both
hypnotically-induced multiple personality and pseudomemory. The former remains
controversial; the latter has been repeatedly replicated in experimental
THE SUPER SPY
Among the released BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE/MKULTRA papers was the following
handwritten memorandum, unsigned and undated:
I have developed a technic which is safe and secure (free
from international censorship). It has to do with the
conditioning of our own people. I can accomplish this as a
The method is the production of hypnosis by means of
simple oral medication. Then (with NO further medication)
the hypnosis is re-enforced daily during the following three
or four days.
Each individual is conditioned against revealing any
information to an enemy, even though subjected to hypnosis
or drugging. If preferable, he may be conditioned to give
FALSE information rather than NO information.
In the margin of this document, one of Marks' assistants wrote, "Is this
Wendt?" The reference here is to G. Richard Wendt, a professor
employed by project CHATTER who, in 1951, led both his Naval employers and the
CIA on a mind control merry-goose-chase, when an experiment similar to that
described above failed to produce results. Even if the above memorandum
DOES describe an operational failure (and the tactics described in this memo
do not seem very feasible to me), we should not rest complacent. We now know
that, in at least ONE case, more sophisticated techniques made the above
scenario a reality.
I refer to the case of Candy Jones.
Her story has filled at least one book and ought, one day, to give rise
to another. Obviously, I cannot here give all the details of this fascinating
and frightening narrative. But a precis is mandatory.
Ms. Jones (born Jessica Wilcox) achieved star status as a model during
World War II, and later established her own modelling agency. An FBI man
requested her to allow her place of business to be used as a "mail drop" for
the Bureau and "another government agency" (presumably, the CIA); Candy, deeply
patriotic, accepted the proposition gladly. Toiling on the fringes of the
clandestine world, Candy eventually came into contact with a "Dr. Gilbert
Jensen," who worked, in turn, with a "Dr. Marshall Burger." (Both names are
pseudonyms.) Unknown to her, these doctors had been employed as "spy-
chiatrists" by the CIA. Using a job interview as a cover, Jensen induced
hypnosis, found Candy to be a particularly responsive subject -- and proceeded
to use her as other scientists would use a rhesus monkey. She became a test
subject for the CIA's mind control program.
Her job -- insofar as it is known -- was to provide a clandestine courier
service. Estabrooks had outlined the basic idea years earlier: Induce
hypnosis via a disguised technique, give the messenger information to
memorize, hypnotically "erase" the message from conscious memory, and install
a post-hypnotic suggestion that the message (now buried within the sub-
conscious) will be brought forth only upon a specific cue. If the hypnotist
can create such a courier, ultra-security can be guaranteed; even torture won't
cause the messenger to tell what he knows -- because he doesn't know that he
knows it. According to the highly respected Dr. Milton Kline, "Evidence
really does exist that has not been published" proving that Estabrooks' perfect
secret agent could be successfully evoked.
Candy was one such success story. Success, in this context, means that she
could be -- and was -- brutally tortured and abused while running assignments
for the CIA. All the MKULTRA toys were brought into play: hypnosis, drugs,
conditioning -- and electronics. Using these devices, Jensen and Burger
-- install a "duplicate personality,"
-- create amnesia of both the programming sessions and the field assignments,
-- turn Candy into a vicious, hate-mongering bigot, the better to isolate her
from the rest of humanity (previously, her associates considered her
noteworthy for her racial tolerance; her modelling agency was one of the
first to break the color barrier), and
-- program her to commit suicide at the end of her usefulness to the Agency.
The programming techniques used on her were flawed. She breached security
when she married famed New York radio personality John Nebel, who, using
hypnotic regression, elicited the long-repressed truth. Eventually, the
"Other Candy" was bade farewell, and the programming broken.
... I feel that the veracity
of her narrative has been established beyond reasonable doubt. In her hypnotic
regression sessions, she recalled being programmed at a government-connected
institute in northern California -- which, as John Marks' investigators later
proved, was indeed heavily involved with government-funded brainwashing
research. Marks himself believes Candy's story -- not least, because the
details of the programming methods used on her were substantiated by documents
released AFTER her book was published. Interviews with Milton Kline,
Dr. Frances Jakes, John Watkins and others provided the testimony that the
programming of Candy Jones was feasible -- and Deep Trance substantiated the
Recently, the case has received important "indirect" confirmation:
Investigators interested in follow-up research have filed FOIA requests with
the CIA for all papers relating to Candy Jones. The agency admits that it has
a substantial file on her, but refuses to release any part of it. If her tale
is false, then why would the CIA be so reluctant to deliver the information?
Indeed, why would they have a file in the first place?
The final confirmation of Candy's tale requires a revelation -- one which I
make with some trepidation, even though the individual named is dead.
"Marshall Burger" was really Dr. William Kroger.
Kroger, long associated with the espionage establishment, had written the
following in 1963:
...a good subject can be hypnotized to deliver secret
information. The memory of this message could be covered
by an artificially-induced amnesia. In the event that he
should be captured, he naturally could not remember that he
had ever been given the message...however, since he had
been given a post-hypnotic suggestion, the message would be
subject to recall through a specific cue.
If Candy confabulated her story, why did she name this particualr scientist,
who, writing theoretically in 1963, predicted the subsequent events in her
After L'AFFAIR JONES, Kroger transferred his base of operations to UCLA --
specifically, to the Neuropsychiatric Institute run by Dr. Louis Jolyon West,
an MKULTRA veteran. There he wrote HYPNOSIS AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION,
with a preface by Martin Orne (another MKULTRA veteran) and H.J. Eysenck (still
another MKULTRA veteran). The finale of this opus contains chilling hints
of the possibilites inherent in combining hypnosis with ESB, implants, and
conditioning -- though Kroger is careful to point out that "we are not
concerned that man might be conditioned by rewards and punishments through
electronic brain stimulation to be controlled like robots." HE may not
be concerned -- but perhaps WE ought to be.
... Because the Controllers did not
establish a hypnotic cover story, or pseudomemory, the true facts of the case
managed to percolate into her conscious mind. No matter how thorough the post-
hypnotic amnesia, leaks will occur -- hence the need for a false memory, to
fill the gap of recollection. The CIA learns from its mistakes. ...
(Milton Kline accepted the Candy Jones story, but considered the job amateurish
and inconsistent with the best work done at that time. Perhaps the major
fault was the lack of a pseudomemory cover story?)
...the story of Dr. Louis Jolyon West, now notorious for
his participation in MKULTRA experiments with LSD. Inspired by VIOLENCE
AND THE BRAIN (a book by Drs. Frank Ervin and Vernon H. Mark
which ascribed inner city turmoil to a "genetic defect" within rebellious
blacks), West proposed, in 1973, a Center for the Study and Reduction of
Violence, where potentially violent individuals could be dealt with
And who were these individuals? According to West's proposal, the note-
worthy factors indicating a violent predisposition were "sex (male), age
(youthful), ethnicity (black) and urbanicity." How to deal with them? "...by
implanting tiny electrodes deep within the brain, electrical activity can be
followed in areas that cannot be measured from the surface of the scalp...it is
even possible to record bioelectrical changes in the brains of freely-moving
subjects, through the use of remote monitoring techniques..." By monitoring
the subjects' EEGs remotely, potentially violent episodes could be identified.
THE SCANDINAVIAN CONNECTION
Two cases in point: Martti Koski and Robert Naeslund.
Koski, a Finnish citizen, claims to have been a victim of mind control
experimentation while visiting Canada. Shortly after his experience began, he
attempted to broadcast his situation to the world and draw attention to his
plight. Few listened. Many of his details were bizarre, and not being a
native speaker of English, he could not express himself convincingly to those
he approached for help. Yet many aspects of his story correspond closely to
known details of MKULTRA and related programs.
Naeslund, a Swedish citizen, tells a similar story. Moreover, his claims
were backed by special evidence: X-rays revealed an implant in his brain.
Naeslund actually went to the extreme of having his implant tested by
electronic technicians employed by Hewlett-Packard. A Greek surgeon performed
the necessary trepanation to remove the device.
Naeslund's implant was originally placed through his nasal cavity. He first
realized that something terrible had happened to him after an experience of
missing time, followed by an INEXPLICABLE NOSEBLEED.
I have located a reference in the open literature to the use, in
animal study, of nasally-implanted electrodes for the measurement of electro-
magnetic radiation effects.
There are other claimed mind control victims bearing evidence of implants;
note, especially, the fascinating case of James Petit, a CIA-connected pilot
and alleged brainwashing alumnus ... . 
HELICOPTERS AND DISKS
The bizarre story of Rex Niles and his sister (not named in news accounts) ... Niles, the high-rolling owner of a Woodland
Hills defense subcontracting firm (Rex Rep) was fingered by authorities
investigating defense industry kickbacks. He became an extraordinarily
cooperative witness in the investigation -- until he was targeted by his
enemies, who allegedly used psychoelectronics as harassment.
The following excerpt from [a] LOS ANGELES TIMES article  on Niles
is particularly compelling:
He [Niles] produced testimony from his sister, a Simi
Valley woman who swears that helicopters have repeatedly
circled her home. An engineer measured 250 watts of
microwaves in the atmosphere outside Niles' house and
found a RADIOACTIVE DISK UNDERNEATH THE DASH OF HIS CAR
A former high school friend, Lyn Silverman, claimed
that her home computer went haywire when Niles stepped
close to it.
As former FBI agent
Ted Gunderson recently explained to my associate Alexander Constantine,
magnetic radioactive discs have long been used by the clandestine services as
cancer-inducing "silent killers" -- i.e., as tools of assassination.
THE MILITARY AND MIND CONTROL
Some time ago, I attended hypnotic regression sessions in which the
subject ... recalled undergoing a mysterious "brain operation" at a veteran's
hospital in California. ... this same hospital was mentioned in two other
cases I encountered.
One of these claimants, a former Navy SEAL who undertook numerous dangerous
missions in Vietnam, favorably impressed me with the wealth of detail in his
story. This individual -- I've taken to calling him "the trained SEAL"--
had received specialized combat training at a military base in California; he
claims that at one point during this training he was drugged, hypnotized,
possibly placed under some form of electronic control, and subjected to the
extremes of pain/pleasure operant conditioning. One peculiar detail of his
story concerns the "reward" aspect of the conditioning: When properly
acquiescent, he was given unlimited sexual access to a woman who, the SEAL
avers, was herself the victim of brainwashing.
Unbelievable as this last claim may seem, I found it oddly resonant when I
later interviewed a [Southern California woman], who
bravely offered me details on a puzzling, albeit quite delicate, incident in
her past. Still an attractive woman, she recalled for me -- indeed, seemed
strangely compelled to describe -- an early love affair with a young soldier
training at a military base near her home. She cannot recall the soldier's
name. All she remembers is that one day he started LIVING AT HER FAMILY'S
HOUSE; she has no memory of how the arrangement began, and her parents have
never felt comfortable discussing the matter. Although unattracted to this
soldier, she felt compelled to become intimate with him, adopting a pliant,
obeisant attitude that was quite out of character for her. Later, the soldier
went on to covert missions in Vietnam.
Of course, a young person's psycho-sexual development is never smooth, and
the incident related above may merely have represented one peculiarly upsetting
bump in that notoriously rough road. Still, some of the details of this story
-- particularly the parents' attitude, the woman's personality shift, and her
subsequent memory lapses -- are striking, and I treat with respect [her] intuition that this minor enigma in her personal history could, if
properly understood, shed light on her later "missing time" experiences.
Could the "trained SEAL" have been right? Was there, IS there, a coterie
of hypno-programmed soldiers conducting particularly hazardous missions? And
do the programmers have at their disposal a "ladies' auxiliary," so to speak,
of hypnotized camp followers?
If the SEAL's story stood alone, skeptics could easily dismiss it
(provided they did not sit, as I did, face-to-face with the story's teller,
listening to all the grisly and unsettling details). But other veterans have
added their voices to this grim tale. Daniel Sheehan, of the Christic
Institute, claims that his organization has spoken to half-a-dozen individuals
with narratives similar to my SEAL informant. All had received "processing,"
so to speak, within the context of standard military training; after pro-
gramming and specialized combat instruction by mercenaries, the recruits were
placed "on hold," to be used as situations arose -- and some of those
situations occurred within the United States.
Walter Bowart began his own researches into mind control by placing an ad in
SOLDIER-OF-FORTUNE-style publications, asking for correspondence from veterans
who experienced inexplicable lapses in memory or strange behavior modification
techniques while serving in Vietnam; he received over 100 replies. Bowart
devoted an entire chapter to one of these respondents -- an Air Force veteran
named David, who ended his four-year tour of duty recalling only that he had
spent the time "having fun, skin diving, laying on the beach, collecting
shells...It never dawned on me until later that I must have DONE something
while I was in the service." (An obvious example of screen memory.) He was
also "assigned" a girlfriend whose name he cannot now recall, despite the
length and deep intimacy of the affair. ...
We even have a confession, of sorts, from a scientist who specialized in one
aspect of this sort of training. Lt. Commander Thomas Narut, of the
U.S. Naval Hospital at the NATO headquarters in Naples, Florida, admitted
during a lecture in Oslo that recruits in Naples underwent CLOCKWORK-ORANGE-
style behavior modification sessions. Trainees would be strapped into chairs
with their eyelids clamped open while watching films of industrial accidents
and African circumcision ceremonies -- films frequently used by psychologists
as a means of inducing stress in experimental situations. Unlike the
protagonist in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, who learned revulsion at the sight of
violence, Narut's soldiers were taught to accept and enjoy bloodshed, to view
it with equanimity. Similar techniques were used to dehumanize potential
enemies. Graduates of this program became, in Narut's words, "hit men and
assassins," to be placed in American embassies throughout the world.
When questioned by reporters about these claims, the American government
denied the story; Narut -- after a long incommunicado period and apparent
coercion -- later explained to journalists that he had merely spoken
theoretically. If so, why did he originally describe the behavior modification
procedure as an ongoing program?
Narut, of course, concentrated on selective programming of individual
American soldiers; on the other side of the mind control spectrum, Defense
Department specialists have also concentrated on methods to render entire
enemy battalions "combat ineffective." Electromagnetic weaponry, intended to
wipe out the aggression of the enemy, is the province of DARPA, under the
direction of Dr. Jack Verona. These projects remain fairly
mysterious; we do know, however, that one operation, SLEEPING BEAUTY, employed
the services of Dr. Michael Persinger ... .
Persinger discovered a method of using ELF waves to induce the brain's MAST
cells to release histamine; should a battlefield commander wish to subject his
enemy to mass bouts of vomiting, Persinger's trick could do the job even
faster than a Tobe Hooper movie. The method works on animals. "The question,"
writes mind control researcher Larry Collins, "is how to get from point A to
point B without violating one of the most rigorous commandments of Government
ethics -- thou shalt not conduct experiments like that on human beings."
If Collins had studied the record a little more carefully, he might realize
that the government hasn't always regarded this commandment as something
graven in stone. As Milton Kline put it:
Ethical factors involved in most research would preclude
having positive results. Those ethical factors don't always
hold with government research. THE RESEARCH WHICH HAS GIVEN
REALLY POSITIVE RESULTS HAS NOT BEEN LIMITED BY ETHICAL
CONSTRAINTS. [my italics]
THE ULTIMATE MOTIVE FOR MIND CONTROL
Hypnosis hard-liners of the Orne school would almost certainly dismiss the
foregoing veterans' accounts of the use of hypnosis, drugs and behavioral
conditioning on American fighting men. Why, the skeptics would ask, would
anyone attempt to create a "Manchurian Candidate" when the military services,
using entirely conventional means, can create a "Rambo"? There have always
been recruits for even the most hazardous duties; what need of hypnosis?
The need, in fact, is absolute.
The modern battlefield has little place for the traditional soldier.
Advanced weaponry requires an increasing level of technical sophistication,
which in turn requires a cool-headed operator. But the all-too-human
combatant -- though capable of extraordinary acts of courage under the most
stressful conditions imaginable -- does not possess inexhaustible reserves of
SANG-FROID. Eventually, breakdowns will occur. Per-capita psychiatric
casualties have increased dramatically in each successive American conflict.
As Richard Gabriel, the excellent historian of the role of psychiatry in
Modern warfare has become so lethal and so intense that
only the already insane can endure it...Modern war requiring
continuous combat will increase the degree of fatigue on the
soldier to heretofore unknown levels. Physical fatigue --
especially the lack of sleep -- will increase the rate of
psychiatric casualties enormously. Other factors -- high
rates of indirect fire, night fighting, lack of food, constant
stress, large numbers of casualties -- will ensure that the
number of psychiatric casualties will reach disastrous pro-
portions. And the number of casualties will overburden the
medical structure to the point of collapse.
The ability to treat psychiatric casualties will all but
disappear. There will be no safe forward areas in which to
treat soldiers debilitated by mental collapse. The technology
of modern war has made such locations functionally obsolete...
According to Gabriel, the military intends to meet this challenge by
creating "the chemical soldier," a designer-drugged zombie in fighting man's
On the battlefields of the future we will witness a true
clash of ignorant armies, armies ignorant of their own
emotions and even of the reasons for which they fight.
Soldiers on all sides will be reduced to fearless chemical
automatons who fight simply because they can do nothing
else...Once the chemical genie is out of the bottle, the
full range of human mental and physical actions become
targets for chemical control...Today it is already possible
by chemical or electrical stimulation to increase the
aggression levels of the human being by stimulating the
amygdala, a section of the brain known to control aggression
and rage. Such "human potential engineering" is already a
partial reality and the necessary technical knowledge
increases every day.
While this passage speaks of drugs and electronics, we can safely assume
that the planners of battle would not refrain from using any other promising
Gabriel writes primarily of large-scale battle scenarios, but based on
his information, we can fairly deduce that the mind-controlled soldier will
also play a role in the surgical strike, the covert operation, the infiltration
behind enemy lines by units of the Special Forces. On such missions, United
States personnel have increasingly relied on torture as a means of interro-
gation and intimidation, and as such barbarism becomes standard procedure
the American fighting man of the future will need to find within himself
unprecedented reserves of brutality. Will the average recruit, culled from the
nation's suburbs and reared on traditional ideals, possess such reserves?
Vietnam proved that the soldier, despite a barrage of propaganda intended to
cloud his discernment, will sense the difference between fighting for legit-
imate defense interests and fighting to protect political hegemony. To
forestall this realization, or to render it irrelevant, military planners must
withdraw the human combatant and replace him with a new species of warrior.
The soldier of the future will not discern; he will merely do. He will not be
a butcher; he will be the butcher's KNIFE -- a tool among tools, thoughtless
And it is my contention that to create this soldier of the future, the
controllers will need a continuing program, one designed to test each new
method and combination of methods for conquering the human mind.
One primary goal of this program must include expanding the human capacity
for stress and violence. Subjects enrolled in such experimental procedures
will experience pain, and will learn to accept the pain. Eventually, they will
learn to inflict it, without remorse or even remembrance. The nation who first
creates this new soldier will possess a decisive advantage on the "conven-
tional" battlefield -- as will the nation which first develops a means of using
mass mind control techniques to disable entire enemy platoons. [And to placate
whole civilian populations, both those of the enemy and those at home. -jpg]
This paramount military necessity is the reason why I will never believe any
unconvincing reassurances that our nation's clandestine scientists have fore-
gone or will forego research into behavior modification. This research will
never be mere history. What's past is present, and today's covert experiment-
ation will become tomorrow's basic training.
A prototype of the future warrior may already be with us. The Navy SEAL
I interviewed spoke in horrifying detail of dismemberment without emotion, of
rape as routine, of killing without affect. And then FORGETTING THAT HE HAD
KILLED. Even years later, he could not recall the stories behind many of the
wounds on his own body. He claims that whenever he would need the services of
the veteran's hospital, doctors would re-hypnotize him shortly after his
admission, while a physician specifically cleared for such work would examine
his medical history, which was highly classified and kept under lock and key.
According to the SEAL's testimony, his memory block cracked little by
little, as a result of events too complex to recount here. Finally, years
after Vietnam, he was able to remember what he did.
Amnesia was a blessing.
A spectre haunts the democratic nations -- the spectre of TECHNOFASCISM.
All the powers of the espionage empire and the scientific establishment have
entered into an unholy alliance to evoke this spectre: Psychiatrist and spy,
Dulles and Delgado, microwave specialists and clandestine operators.
A mind is a terrible thing to waste -- and a worse thing to commandeer.
5. See bibliography.
6. New York: Bantam Books, 1979.
7. See generally PROJECT MKULTRA, THE CIA'S PROGRAM OF RESEARCH IN
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, joint hearing before the Select Committee on Health and
Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, Unites States Senate
(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977).
8. Robert Eringer, "Secret Agent Man," ROLLING STONE, 1985.
9. John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti (Marks files, available at
the National Security Archives, Washington, D.C.).
10. In an interview with John Marks, hypnosis expert Milton Kline, a
veteran of clandestine experimentation in this field, averred that his work
for the government continued. Since the interview took place in 1977, years
after the CIA allegedly halted mind control research, we must conclude either
that the CIA lied, or that another agency continued the work. In another
interview with Marks, former Air Force-CIA liaison L. Fletcher Prouty con-
firmed that the Department of Defense ran studies either in conjunction with
or parallel to those operated by the CIA. (Marks files.)
12. A copy of this letter can be found in the Marks files.
13. Estabrooks attracted an eclectic group of friends, including J.
Edgar Hoover and Alan Watts.
14. Interview with daughter Doreen Estabrooks, Marks files, Washington,
15. Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, ACID DREAMS (New York: Grove Press,
1985) 3-4; Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 6-8
16. Marks, ibid. 4-6.
17. Edward Hunter, BRAINWASHING IN RED CHINA (New York: Vanguard Press,
1951.). Hunter invented the term "brainwashing" in a September 24, 1950 Miami
18. "Japan's Germ Warfare Experiments," THE GLOBE AND MAIL (Toronto),
May 19, 1982.
19. Walter Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL (New York: Dell, 1978), 191-2,
quoting Warren Commission documents. We cannot fairly derive from this state-
ment a sanguine attitude about PRESENT Soviet capabilities; in this field,
even outdated technology suffices for mischief.
20. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 60-61. A folk
entymology has it that the "MK" of MKULTRA stands for "Mind Kontrol." Accord-
ing to Marks, TSS prefixed the cryptonyms of all its projects with these
initials. Note, though, that MKULTRA was preceded by a still-mysterious TSS
program called QKHILLTOP.
21. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 224-229. Seven
MKULTRA subprojects were continued, under TSS supervision, as MKSEARCH. This
project ended in 1972. CIA apologists often proclaim that "brainwashing"
research ceased in either 1962 or 1972; these blandishments refer to the TSS
projects, not to the ORD work, which remains TERRA INCOGNITA for independent
researchers. Marks discovered that the ORD research was so voluminous that
retrieving documents via FOIA would have proven unthinkably expensive.
22. For a description of the research into parapsychology, see Ronald
M. McRae's MIND WARS (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984). The best book
available on a subject which awaits a truly authoritative text.
24. Allegedly, the experiment took place in 1964. However, in WERE WE
CONTROLLED? (New Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1967), the pseudonymous
"Lincoln Lawrence" makes an interesting argument (on page 36) that the
demonstration took place some years earlier.
25. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Much of Delgado's work was funded
by the Office of Naval Intelligence, a common conduit for CIA funds during the
1950s and '60s. (Gordon Thomas' JOURNEY INTO MADNESS (New York: Bantam, 1989)
misleadingly implies that CIA interest in Delgado's work began in 1972.)
26. J.M.R. Delgado. "Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording
in Completely Free Patients," PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY (Robert L. Schwitzgebel and
Ralph K. Schwitzgebel, editors; New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973):
27. David Krech, "Controlling the Mind Controllers," THINK 32 (July-
28. Delgado, PHYSICAL CONTROL OF THE MIND
29. Delgado, "Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely
free patients," 195.
31. John Ranleigh, THE AGENCY (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1986): 208.
Marchetti casts this story in the form of an amusing anecdote: After much time
and expense, a cat was suitably trained and prepared -- only, on its first
assignment, to be run over by a taxi. Marchetti neglects to point out that
nothing stopped the Agency from getting another cat. Or from using a human
33. Alan W. Scheflin and Edward M. Opton, Jr., THE MIND MANIPULATORS
(London: Paddington Press, 1978), 347.
34. Thomas, JOURNAY INTO MADNESS, 276.
35. James Olds, "Hypothalamic Substrates of Reward," PHYSIOLOGICAL
REVIEWS, 1962, 42:554; "Emotional Centers in the Brain," SCIENCE JOURNAL,
1967, 3 (5).
36. Vernon Mark and Frank Ervin, VIOLENCE AND THE BRAIN (New York:
Harper and Row, 1970), chapter 12, excerpted in INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND THE
FEDERAL ROLE IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, prepared by the Staff of the Subcom-
mittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee of the Judiciary, United
States Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1974).
37. John Lilly, THE SCIENTIST (Berkeley, Ronin Publishing, 1988 [revised
edition]), 90. Monkeys allowed to stimulate themselves continually via ESB
brought themselves to orgasm once every three minutes, sixteen hours a day.
Scientific gatherings throughout the world saw motion pictures of these
experiments, which surely made spectacular cinema.
38. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 336-337. Heath even
monitored his patient's brain responses during the subject's first heterosexual
encounter. Such is the nature of the brave new world before us.
39. Robert L. Schwitzgebel and Richard M. Bird, "Sociotechnical Design
Factors in Remote Instrumentation with Humans in Natural Environments,"
BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION, 1970, 2, 99-105.
40. Thomas, JOURNEY INTO MADNESS, 277. In the BEHAVIOR RESEARCH METHODS
AND INSTRUMENTATION article referenced above, Schwitzgebel details how the
radio signals may be fed into a telephone via a modem and thus analyzed by a
computer anywhere in the world.
41. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 347-349.
42. Louis Tackwood and the Citizen's Research and Investigation Commit-
tee, THE GLASS HOUSE TAPES (New York: Avon, 1973), 226.
43. Perry London, BEHAVIOR CONTROL (New York: Harper and Row, 1969), 145
44. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 351-353; Tackwood, THE
GLASS HOUSE TAPES, 228.
45. "Beepers in kids' heads could stop abductors," Las Vegas SUN, Oct.
46. Lilly, THE SCIENTIST, 91.
47. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 151-154.
49. The story of Deep Trance, an MKULTRA "insider" who provided
invaluable information, is somewhat involved. I do not know who Trance is/was
and Marks may not know either. He contacted Trance via the writer of an
article published shortly before research on THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN
CANDIDATE" began, addressing his informant "Dear Source whose anonymity I
respect." I respect it too -- hence my reticence to name the aforementioned
article, which may mark a trail to Trance. The fact that I have not followed
this trail would not prevent others from doing so. [And if Trance were a
CIA disinformation source a la William Cooper, this is precisely the behavior
they would count on. -jpg]
50. London, BEHAVIOR CONTROL, 139.
52. Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 36-37; Anita Gregory, "Introduction
to Leonid L. Vasilev's EXPERIMENTS IN DISTANT INFLUENCE," PSYCHIC WARFARE:
FACT OR FICTION (editor: John White) (Nottinghamshire: Aquarian, 1988) 34-57.
53. Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 38.
54. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 261-264.
55. Ibid. 263.
56. Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 52.
57. HUMAN DRUG TESTING BY THE CIA, 202.
58. Note especially the Supreme Court's decision in CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE
AGENCY ET Al. V. SIMS, ET AL. (No. 83-1075; decided April 16, 1986). The
egregious and dangerous majority opinion in this case held that disclosure of
the names of scientists and institutions involved in MKULTRA posed an
"unacceptable risk of revealing 'intelligence sources.' The decisions of the
[CIA] Director, who must of course be familiar with 'the whole picture,' as
judges are not, are worthy of great deference...it is conceivable that the
mere explanation of why information must be withheld can convey valuable
information to a foreign intelligence agency." How do we square this continu-
ing need for secrecy with the CIA's protestations that MKULTRA achieved little
success, that the studies were conducted within the Nueremberg statues govern-
ing medical experiments, and that the research was made available in the open
59. Letter, P.A. Lindstrom to Robert Naeslund, July 27, 1983; copy
available from Martti Koski, Kiilinpellontie 2, 21290 Rusko, Finland. Lind-
strom writes that he fully agrees with Lincoln Lawrence, author of WERE WE
60. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 265. I have attempted without
success to contact Dr. Lindstrom.
61. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 233-249. This interview was
repinted without attribution in a bizarre compendium of UFO rumors called
THE MATRIX, compiled by "Valdamar Valerian" (actually John Grace, allegedly
a captain working for Air Force intelligence).
62. Robert Anton Wilson, "Adventures with Head Hardware," MAGICAL BLEND,
23 [of course], July 1989.
63. Michael Hutchison, MEGA BRAIN (New York: Ballantine, 1986); Gerald
Oster, "Auditory Beats in the Brain," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, September, 1973.
64. Marilyn Ferguson, THE BRAIN REVOLUTION (New York: Taplinger, 1973),
65. Ibid., 91-92. The presence of delta in a waking subject can
66. Bio-Pacer promotional and price sheet, available from Lindemann
Laboratories, 3463 State Street, #264, Santa Barbara, CA 93105.
67. Hutchison, MEGA BRAIN, 117-118. Compare Light's observations about
"the grant game" to Sid Gottlieb's protestations that nearly all "mind con-
trol" research was openly published.
68. Thomas Martinez and John Gunther, THE BROTHERHOOD OF MURDER (New
York: McGraw-Hill, 1988), 230.
69. Interview, Sandy Monroe of the Los Angeles office of the Christic
70. See generally Paul Brodeur, THE ZAPPING OF AMERICA (Toronto, George
J. MacLeod, 1977).
71. Until recently, the American Embassy was on a street named after the
72. It was finally determined that the microwaves were used to receive
transmissions from bugs planted within the embassy. DARPA director George H.
Heimeier went on record stating that PANDORA was never designed to study
"microwaves as a surveillance tool." See Anne Keeler, "Remote Mind Control
Technology," FULL DISCLOSURE #15. I would note that the Soviet embassy was
"bugged and waved" in Canada during the 1950s, and according to the Los
Angeles TIMES (June 5, 1989), the Soviet embassy in Britain had been similarly
73. Ronald I. Adams R.A. Williams, BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
RADIATION (RADIOWAVES AND MICROWAVES) EURASIAN COMMUNIST COUNTRIES, (Defense
Intelligence Agency, March 1976.) Brodeur notes that much of the work ascribed
to the Soviets in this report was actually first accomplished by scientists in
the United States. Keeler argues that this report constitutes an example of
"mirror imaging" -- i.e., parading domestic advances as a foreign threat, the
better to pry funding from a suitably-fearful Congress.
74. Keeler, "Remote Mind Control Technology."
75. R.J. MacGregor, "A Brief Survey of Literature Relating to Influence
of Low Intensity Microwaves on Nervous Function" (Santa Monica: RAND Corpor-
76. Keeler, "Remote Mind Control Technology."
77. Larry Collins, "Mind Control," PLAYBOY, January 1990.
78. Allan H. Frey, "Behavioral Effects of Electromagnetic Energy,"
SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND MEASUREMENTS OF RADIO FREQUENCIES/MICRO-
WAVES, DeWitt G. Hazzard, editor (U.S. Department of Health, Education and
79. quoted in THE APPLICATION OF TESLA'S TECHNOLOGY IN TODAY'S WORLD
(Montreal: Lafferty, Hardwood & Partners, Ltd., 1978).
80. Keeler, "Remote Mind Control Technology."
81. L. George Lawrence, "Electronics and Brain Control," POPULAR
ELECTRONICS, July 1973.
82. Susan Schiefelbein, "The Invisible Threat," SATURDAY REVIEW,
September 15, 1979.
83. E. Preston, "Studies on the Nervous System, Cardiovascular Function
and Thermoregulation," BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIO FREQUENCY AND MICROWAVE
RADIATION, edited by H.M. Assenheim (Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council
of Canada, 1979), 138-141.
84. Robert O. Becker, THE BODY ELECTRIC (New York: William Morrow, 1985)
86. Ibid., 321.
87. See Bowart's OPERATION MIND CONTROL, page 218, for an interesting
example of this "rationalization" process at work in the case of Sirhan
Sirhan, who was convicted for the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy. In
prison, Sirhan was hypnotized by Dr. Bernard Diamond, who instructed Sirhan
to climb the bars of his cage like a monkey. He did so. After the trance
was removed, Sirhan was shown tapes of his actions; he insisted that he "acted
like a monkey" of his own free will -- he claimed he wanted the exercise.
88. Keeler suggests that the proposal was revealed only because
Schapitz' sensationalistic implications may have worked to his discredit --
and therefore hide -- the REAL research. Personally, I don't accept this
argument, but I respect Keeler's instincts enough to repeat her caveat here.
89. Margaret Cheney's TESLA: A MAN OUT OF TIME (New York: Dell, 1981),
the most reliable book in the sea of wild speculation surrounding this
extraordinary scientist, confirms Tesla's early work with the psychological
effects of electromagnetic radiation. See especially pages 101-104; note also
the afterword, in which we learn that certain government agencies have kept
important research by Tesla hidden from the general public.
90. Noted in Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 29.
91. Particularly one Thomas Bearden of Huntsville, Alabama; I have in my
possession a document written by Bearden associate Andrew Michrowski which
identifies Bearden as an intelligence agent for an undisclosed agency.
92. Kathleen McAuliffe, "The Mind Fields," OMNI magazine, February 1985.
93. May 5, 1985.
94. I refer to an individual who later wrote a very clear-headed and
thoughtful letter to Dr. Paul Lowinger, who has graciously made his files
available to me. For now, I feel compelled to withhold this person's name.
95. Cameron became president of the American Psychiatric Association,
the Canadian Psychiatric Association, and the World Association of Psychia-
trists, He previously sat on the Nueremberg panel, helping to draw up the
statutes governing ethical medical behavior!
96. In particular, Opton and Scheflin's overview, though excellent in
scope and detail, continually seeks reassurring interpretations of evidence
which points toward more distressing conclusions.
97. Martin T. Orne, "Can a hypnotized subject be compelled to carry out
otherwise unacceptable behavior?" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERI-
MENTAL HYPNOSIS, 1972, Vol. 20, 101-117.
98. Marks mentions, in a letter to Orne, the latter's claim to have been
an unwitting participant in subproject 84. Yet the papers released concerning
subproject 84 clearly establish the Agency's willingness to put Orne in the
know; Orne later admitted to Marks that he was made aware of his CIA sponsor-
ship (Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 172-173). In an
interview with Marks, Orne discounted the story of Candy Jones (which we shall
recount later) by insisting that if such an experiment had occurred "someone
in some agency would have come to me." Why would they come to him about a
super-secret project, unless Orne had a high security clearance and worked
extensively with intelligence agencies? Note also that Orne conducted exten-
sive studies for the Office of Naval Research from June 1, 1968 to May 31,
1971. He has also been funded by DARPA. Moreover, I consider noteworthy the
fact that Orne somehow became president of the Society for Clinical and
Experimental Hypnosis despite the fact that the organization had decided not
to have a president. (This fact was related to Marks by a prominent hypnosis
specialist in an off-the-record interview that I probably wasn't supposed to
99. The story has been told many times. See Turner and Christian's THE
KILLING OF ROBERT F. KENNEDY, 207-208; also Peter J. Reiter, ANTISOCIAL OR
CRIMINAL ACTS AND HYPNOSIS (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1958).
100. John G. Watkins, "Antisocial behavior under hypnosis: Possible or
impossible?" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS,
1972, Vol. 20, 95-100.
101. Milton H. Erickson, "An experimental investigation of the possible
anti-social use of hypnosis," PSYCHIATRY, 1939, vol. 2. Erickson argues that
if a hypnotist has convinced his subject to misperceive reality, then result-
ing actions cannot be considered "anti-social," for the actions would be
acceptable within the subject's internal reality construct. This argument
strikes me as semantic quibbling. [not me -jpg]
102. See generally Flo Conway and Jim Seigelman, SNAPPING (New York:
103. Lee and Schlain, ACID DREAMS, 8-9.
104. John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti, December 19, 1977
105. Martin T. Orne, "On the Mechanisms of Posthypnotic Amnesia," THE
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS, 1966, vol. 14,
121-134. Orne's work with post-hypnotic amnesia was funded by NIMH, the Air
Force Office of Scientific Research, and the Office of Naval Research. I
should like to hear what innocent explanation, if any, the Air Force has to
offer to explain their interest in post-hypnotic amnesia. ["We must not allow
a post-hypnotic-amnesia gap!" of course. -jpg]
106. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 242-243.
107. Obviously Allan Dulles. This may have been a hypnotically-induced
delusion; on the other hand, Dulles' legendary sexual rapacity makes this claim
rather less unlikely than one might first assume.
108. Always the best indicator of whether or not hypnosis is genuine;
I can't understand why Orne didn't use this test in the Blanchi case.
109. Herbert Spiegel, "Hypnosis and evidence: Help or hindrance," ANN.
N.Y. ACAD. SCI.; 1980, 347, 73-85.
113. Marks, THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", 34-37.
114. Donald Bain, THE CONTROL OF CANDY JONES (Chicago, Playboy Press,
115. The use of hypnotized couriers in warfare goes back to the 19th
116. Estabrooks, HYPNOTISM, 193-214.
117. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks
files). In another interview, Professor Clare Young (a colleague of Esta-
brooks' at Colgate University) confirmed that Estabrooks' hypnosis work for
the government has never been published.
119. Marks files. John Marks did excellent work on the Candy Jones story;
he erred -- almost unforgivably -- on the side of conservatism when he refused
to include information about this incident in his book. I know the name of
the institute involved; however, since Candy saw fit to keep this aspect of
her story secret (probably for sound legal reasons), I shall follow her lead.
120. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 446-447.
121. Interviews, Marks files. One of Marks' informants offered the
interesting speculation that Candy's torture sessions were not conducted in
the field, but in the lab -- her entire mission might have been a hypno-
122. The information about Candy's CIA files stems from a telephone
interview with Candy Jones. A problem looms here: CIA cover stories unravel
like the skin of an onion; once you remove the outer layer, the next lie is
revealed. [For this reason, I don't think this paper "reveals" the whole
truth; that, I suspect, is far worse. -jpg] In the case of Candy Jones, the
substrata of buncombe involves allegations that she WILLINGLY complied with
the CIA, and used Jensen's hypnosis experiments as a rationalization for her
compliance. Such is the explanation offered by certain of Marks' informants;
alas, Opton and Scheflin seem to have bought this line. Anyone familiar with
the vile acts of self-degradation to which Candy's programmers subjected her
will laugh this story out of court. No one, short of a severely psychotic
masochist, would willingly undergo what she went through.
123. Marks files.
124. William Kroger, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS (Philadelphia:
Lippincott, 1963), 299.
125. Recently, ufologist Jim Moseley, an acquaintance of Candy's, has
claimed that an unidentified source on Nebel's "inner circle" once, off-the-
record, pronounced Candy's story "a crock." This assertion deserves careful
and respectful consideration. Still, Moseley won't identify his source, and
we have no way of telling if this insider spoke from instinct or certain
knowledge, or indeed, what he really meant. Did he feel Candy was fantasizing
or fibbing? If the former, why did her hallucinations match details of
MKULTRA released only after publication of her book? If the latter, how are
we to explain the many hypnotic regression tapes, at least some of which were
made available to outside investigators? (Fairly elaborate, for a hoax.) In
any case, how could Candy have known the fact (confirmed by Marks' associates)
that Kroger taught "Jensen" at a certain West-coast institute? Why, if the
story was "a crock," would Candy risk libel suits by naming -- to associates
and investigators, if not to the general public -- real-life hypnotherapists?
All in all, I would suggest that Moseley's "insider" was speaking glibly, and
did not know the true facts. [Or was speaking disinformationally. -jpg]
126. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1976.
127. Ibid., 415.
133. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks
138. Some have also raised questions about his psychiatric treatment
of Oswald assassin Jack Ruby. I find it odd that a CIA mind control veteran
-- who did NOT reside or practice in Dallas -- should have been assigned to the
143. Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy, "Quantization of Microwave
Biological Effects," SYMPOSIUM OF BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND MEASUREMENT OF RADIO
FREQUENCY/MICROWAVES, edited by Dewitt G. Hazzard (U.S. Department of Health,
Education and Welfare, 1977).
144. MIAMI HERALD, May 28, 1984 and June 6, 1984 ...
145. Los Angeles TIMES, March 28, 1988.
147. A mutual friend described for me an incident in which the former
SEAL, mistakenly perceiving a threat, almost instantly felled, and nearly
killed, a man twice his size. Whatever the truth of my informant's other
statements, he certainly has received advanced combat training.
148. Fenton Bresler, WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON? (New York: St. Martin's
Press, 1989), 45-46.
149. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 27-42.
150. Denise Winn, THE MANIPULATED MIND (London, Octagon Press, 1983),
72-73; Bresler, WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON?, 41; see generally: Peter Watson,
WAR ON THE MIND (London: Hutchison, 1978) (Watson broke the story on Narut
for the London TIMES).
151. Larry Collins, "Mind Control," PLAYBOY, January 1990.
152. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks
153. Richard A. Gabriel, NO MORE HEROES (New York: Hill and Wang, 1987),
154. Ibid., 150-151.
155. See generally: Mark Lane, CONVERSATIONS WITH AMERICANS (Simon and
Shuster, 1970); A.J. Langguth, HIDDEN TERRORS (New York: Pantheon, 1978).
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MIND CONTROL
ACID DREAMS, by Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain (Grove, 1985). Outstanding
work on MKULTRA and drugs.
THE BODY ELECTRIC, by Robert Becker (Morrow, 1985). Important.
THE BRAIN CHANGERS, by Maya Pines (Signet, 1973). Outdated, but an excellent
chapter on the stimoceiver and related technologies.
BRAIN CONTROL, by Elliot Valenstein (John Wiley and Sons, 1973). Highly
conservative; outdated; still worth reading.
CIA PAPERS, compiled by Capitol Information Associates (POB 8275, Ann Arbor,
Michigan, 48107). Interesting selection of MKULTRA documents.
THE CONTROL OF CANDY JONES, by Donald Bain (Playboy Press, 1976). Mandatory
HUMAN DRUG TESTING BY THE CIA, hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and
Scientific Research on the Committee on Human Resources, United States
Senate (Government Printing Office, 1977).
HYPNOTISM, by George Estabrooks (Dutton, 1957). See especially the chapters
on hypnosis in warfare and crime. Some modern experts in clinical
hypnosis decry Estabrooks' work. These "experts" tend to have a history
of funding by CIA cut-outs and military intelligence. I suspect they
denounce Estabrooks not because his work was shoddy, but because he let
the cat out of the bag.
INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND THE FEDERAL ROLE IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, by the Staff
of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee of the
Judiciary, United States Senate (Government Printing Office, 1974).
MEGABRAIN, by Michael Hutchison (Ballantine, 1986). The only popular book
on modern mind machines.
MESSENGERS OF DECEPTION, by Jacques Vallee (And/Or, 1979). Vallee has been
criticized, correctly, for including in this book invented "conver-
sations" with a composite character he calls Major Murphy. But the
section on cults in this book bears a haunting resemblance to stories
I have heard in my own investigations.
THE MIND MANIPULATORS, by Opton and Scheflin (Paddington Press, 1978). Con-
servative, but extremely useful as a reference work.
MIND WARS, by Ronald McCrae (St. Martin's Press, 1984).
OPERATION MIND CONTROL, by Walter Bowart (Dell, 1978). The best single volume
on the subject. Difficult to find; indeed, this book's rapid disappear-
ance from bookstores and libraries has aroused the suspicions of some
researchers. (Tom David Books, POB 1107, Aptos, CA 95001, carries this
PHYSICAL CONTROL OF THE MIND, by Jose Delgado (Harper and Row, 1969). Outdated
but still essential.
PROJECT MKULTRA, joint hearing before the Select Committee on Health and
Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States
Senate (Government Printing Office, 1977).
PSYCHIC WARFARE: FACT OR FICTION? edited by John White (Aquarian, 1988). See
especially Michael Rossman's contribution.
PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY, Robert L. Schwitzgebel and Ralph K. Schwitzgebel (Holt,
Rhinehart and Winston, 1973).
THE SCIENTIST, by John Lilly (expanded edition: Ronin, 1988). Bizarre --
Lilly is an ex-"brainwashing" specialist who claims to be in contact
with aliens. Is he controlled or controlling?
THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE", by John Marks (Bantam, 1978). An
invaluable book. However, many people have made the mistake of assuming
it tells the full story. It does not.
WERE WE CONTROLLED? by Lincoln Lawrence (University Books, 1967). Explores
possible connections to the JFK assassination. Dr. Petter Lindstrom's
endorsement of this work makes it mandatory reading.
WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON? by Fenton Bresler (St. Martin's Press, 1989).
Interesting thesis concerning the possible use of mind control on Mark
David Chapman. Better in its analysis of Chapman than in its history
of mind control. In my own work, I have encountered data which may
help confirm Bresler's theory.
THE ZAPPING OF AMERICA, by Paul Brodeur (MacLeod [Canadian edition], 1976).
Contains a good chapter on microwave mind control technology.
The important stories of Martti Koski and Robert Naeslund can be obtained by
sending three dollars to Martti Koski, Kiilinpellontie 2, 21290 Rusko,
FINLAND. Koski's description of his "programming" sessions should not be
taken at face value; we cannot always trust the perception of someone whose
perception has been altered. His research into the technology of mind control